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Completely Revised Edition :

Q1 : the Heart of the Gospel

English, French and Dutch Translations

by Taurus Press, 2016
available in POD format

The sayings gospel called "Q" (from the German "Quelle" or "source") is a collection of words spoken by the historical Jesus and written down ca.50 - 75 A.D. This collection has three layers (Q1 is first). This is the entire English text of Q1, following the most recent scholarly investigations by John Kloppenborg (1988), Burton L.Mack (1993) & other members of the Jesus-Seminar (cfr.Funk & Hoover, 1992). My Dutch translation of Q1, more influenced by Nestle-Aland (1979), was based on the research of Denaux & Vervenne (1986) & the translation of Catherine (1996). A French translation, based on Chouraqui (1989) will be made available. This English translation differs only slightly (like in verse 43) from the one proposed by Mack (1993) except for the translation of "God" as "Elohim", "Always give us our bread" instead of Mack's "Give us each day our daily bread" and punctuation. The capitals of certain words as well as the names of the sections are done anew.

Scholars subdivide the text in 7 clusters (I, II ... VII) called : teachings, instructions, confidence in the Father, on speaking out & against anxiety, on personal goods, parables of the Kingdom and the followers of Jesus (Mack, 1993).

In the present study the 21 sections (S1, S2 .... S21) of Q1 are linked with their references in the Gospel of Luke and in Kloppenborg's edition (K) of the complete text of Q (i.e. Q1 + Q2 + Q3). Finally Q1 is subdivided in 91 "verses". They are the semantic units used to structure my comment on Q1.

My interpretation of the words of Jesus is influenced by metaphysics, mysticology & the "tradition" of the qabalah (cfr. Sepher Yetzirah, Bahir, Zohar) and should be distinguished from the "premises" of the Jesus Seminar.

These are the words of Jesus.

The Teachings

the fortunate

1 Seeing the crowds he said to his disciples :

‘How fortunate are the poor ;

they have the Kingdom of Elohim.
2 How fortunate the hungry ; they will be fed.
3 How fortunate those who weep ; they will laugh.

do good

4 But to you who hear, I say : love your enemies, bless those who curse you, and pray for those who mistreat you.           
5 If someone slaps you on the cheek, offer the other as well. If anyone grabs your coat, let him have your shirt as well.   
6 Give to anyone who asks, and if someone takes away which is yours, do not ask to have it back.    
7 As you want people to treat you, do the same to them.       
8 If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you ? Even tax collectors love those who love them, do they not ?
9 And if you embrace only your brothers, what credit is that to you ? Doesn't everybody do that ?
10 And if you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you ? For wrongdoers also lend to their kind because they expect to be repaid.        
11 On the contrary, love your enemies, do good and lend without expecting anything in return. Your reward will be great, and you will be children of the Most High, for He is kind toward the unthankful and the evil.’

judge not

12 Be merciful even as your Father is merciful.            
13 Judge not, and you will not be judged.         
14 For you will be judged with the standard you judge with.           

a parable

15 He gave them a parable :         
Can the blind lead the blind ?      
Will they not both fall into a pit ?           
16 A student is not above his teacher.    
It is enough for a student to be like his teacher.

about hypocrisy

17 How can you look for the splinter in your brother's eye,
and not notice the stick in your own eye ?         
18 How can you say to your brother : 'Brother, let me pull out the splinter in your eye', when you do not see the stick in your own eye ? You hypocrite ! First take the stick from your own eye, and then you can see to remove the splinter that is in your brother's eye.’     

good and evil fruit

19 A good tree does not bear rotten fruit ; a rotten tree does not bear good fruit.
20 Are figs gathered from thorns, or grapes from thistles ? Every tree is known by its fruit.     
21 The good man produces good things from his store of goods and treasures ; and the evil man evil things.

For the mouth speaks from a full heart !

hear and act

22 And why do you call me 'Master, Master', and do not do what I say ?  
23 Everyone who hears my words and does them, I will show you to whom he is like.
24 He is like a man who built a house on a rock. The rain fell, a torrent broke against the house, and it did not fall, for it had a rock foundation.       
25 But everyone who hears my words but does not do them, is like a man who built a house on sand. The rain came, the torrent broke against it, and it collapsed. The ruin of that house was great.

(verses 26 - 96 are in the book)

 Short Bibliography :

Bultmann, R. : Die Geschichte der synoptischen Tradition, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht - Göttingen, 1921.
Catherine, L. : De Gelaagde Religie, Hadewijch - Baarn, 1996.
Chouraqui, A. : La Bible, Desclée de Brouwer - Paris, 1989.
Denaux, A. & Vervenne, M. : Synopsis, Brepols - Turnhout, 1986.
De Bijbel, Willibrord Vertaling, 1981, 1992.
Dodd, C.H. : The Parables of the Kingdom, Nisbet - London, 1961.
Funk, R.W. & Hoover, R.W. : Five Gospels, One Jesus : What Did Jesus Really Say ?, Polebridge Press - CA, 1992.
Havener, I. : Q : The Sayings of Jesus, Glazier - Wilmington, 1987.
The Holy Bible, Cambridge University Press - Cambridge, 1986.
Kloppenborg, J. : The Formation of Q : Trajectories in Ancient Wisdom Collections, Fortress Press - Philadelphia, 1987.
Kloppenborg, J. : Q Parallels : Synopsis, Critical Notes and Concordance, Polebridge - CA, 1988.
Kloppenborg, J. : The Q Thomas Reader, Polebridge - CA, 1990.
Mack, B.L. : The Lost Gospel : the Book of Q and Christian Origins, Element - Queensland, 1993.
Nestle-Aland : Novum Testamentum Græce et Latine, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft - Stuttgart, 1979.
Piper, R.A. : Wisdom in the Q Tradition : The Aphoristic Teaching of Jesus, Cambridge University Press - New York, 1989.
Robinson, J.M : "Logoi Sophon : Zur Gattung der Spruchquelle Q" , in : Dinkler, E. (edit) : Zeit und Geschichte, Festschrift R.Bultmann, Tübingen, 1964, pp.77 - 96.
Schweitzer, A. : The Quest for the Historical Jesus, Black - London, 1910.
Wansbrough, H. (edit) : Jesus and the Oral Gospel Tradition, Sheffield, 1991.
Weiss, B. : The Quellen des Lukasevangeliums, Cotta - Stuttgart, 1907.
Weiss, J. : Jesus' Proclamation of the Kingdom of God, Fortress - Philadelphia, 1971.

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initiated : 11 XI 1997 - last update : 09 V 2016 - version n°2 - final version