The Maxims of Good Discourse
by vizier Ptahhotep (ca. 2200 BCE)
after two Middle Kingdom copies

adjacent pages :

notes on the translation
lexicon of special concepts
hieroglyphic text of the Maxims

by Wim van den Dungen

The translation of The Maxims of Good Discourse is part of my Ancient Egyptian Readings (2016), a POD publication in paperback format of all translations available at These readings span a period of thirteen centuries, covering all important stages of Ancient Egyptian literature. Translated from Egyptian originals, they are ordered chronologically and were considered by the Egyptians as part of the core of their vast literature.

The study of the sources, hieroglyphs, commentaries and pictures situating the text itself remain on the website at no cost.

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initiated : 15 X 2002 - last update : 06 I 2016 - version n°3

© Wim van den Dungen