formal sketch of a critical ethics
Wim van den Dungen
we go where our sins will not touch us ?
No place on Earth - no place at all. Not in the sky, not in the midst of
the sea, not in the rocky clefts of mountains."
Buddha Shakyamuni - Dharmapada,
Evil, 12 (8:127) - spoken to the three groups of monks.
this text forms a triad with :
Clearings : On Critical Epistemology
Sensations : On Critical Esthetics
I : Transcendental Ethics.
II : Theoretical Ethics :
Ethics as a normative system.
The subject of action or the freedom of initiation.
The object of action and physical determination.
Moral science, moral philosophy & critical ethics.
Teleological and deontological transgressions.
Moral science : the genesis of a sense of justice.
Moral philosophy : ego & intent as sources of ethics.
The alter-ego and Operation Duty.
The formation of conscience.
Returning the call of vocation.
Goodness & Project Fairness.
12. Planetary Participationism.
Ethics and metaphysics.
Ethics and the Divine.
Sketches for a Practical Morality :
The practice of ethics.
On the secular state.
For preliminaries read :
Intelligent Wisdom (2007),
Philosophy of Sensation (2007).
The Architecture of Thought
7 MODES OF THOUGHT
3 STAGES OF COGNITION
instinct and reason
barrier between rationality and intuition
the totality of parts organized in an orderly fashion ;
movement : a change in the physical
position and/or momentum of a system in the exclusive presence of external
causes (cf. "SR" or Stimulus-Response with no internal causes) ;
coordinations of movement : combinations of movement of a system in the presence of external and internal causes (cf.
"SIR" or Stimulus-Internal-Reponse, characterized by the
presence of a conscious agent and/or a meaningful choice) ;
internal causes : forces belonging to the
interiority of a system, engendering changes initiated by the intent of
the conscious agent of the system ;
action : a change brought about or prevented by a conscious,
intentional, intelligent, affective and volitional (behavioural) system with minimal impact on the
world ; the absence of action (inaction), being the zero-action ;
free will : the creator & director of
intentional action in the absence of all possible
coercion to undertake or to do nothing ;
deeds : complex of actions serving a single purpose with medial impact
on the world ;
behaviours : habitual complex of deeds with maximal impact on the world
ethics : the justification of action, the propagation of
Project Fairness and the nurturing of care & compassion ;
morality : the application of the rules of ethics to the
various issues of practical life, fostering fairness and rightness.
without, on the one hand, a transcendental object, i.e. a coordinated movement
& its consequence (or the prevention of such movement & its consequence), and, on the other hand, a transcendental subject,
i.e. a possessor of conscious intent, who is the source of behaviour, accommodating desire,
free will and reason.
00. The minimum necessity for a possible ethics ? Coordinated
movement and free will.
000. If free will is the initiator, then coordinated movement is the
sedimentation of intent in terms of action, deed or behaviour.
1. No transcendental object without goals (to be realized through
coordinated actions, deeds or behaviours, i.e. culturalizing states of matter) and/or values
(exercising an attraction, prompting action from both passions and cognition).
1.1 Eliminate the transcendental object, and ethics is no longer about
certain coordinated movements and their impact on the actor and his/her
1.2 The transcendental object of ethics guarantees movement, and
allows the coordination of movement to actually happen.
1.3 The object is necessary, for without it, there is nothing to justify,
nothing ethical ever happens, and values & goals are non-existent.
2. No transcendental subject
without free will (slipping through the uncertainty-margins of nature) and its
power of choice.
2.1 Eliminate the transcendental subject, and ethics is no longer about
actual coordinations based on conscious meaning. Without coordinated changes in position and/or
momentum, ethics is (a) that part of physics which describes certain classes of
movements deemed important to organize social formations in terms of goals,
values and norms and (b) inherently devoid of its principal actor, namely : the
2.2 The transcendental subject of ethics is another formulation of the
irreducibility of the First Person Perspective (FPP), the sole guarantee of
coordination, or the meaningful, conscious manipulation of objects and signs
(signals, icons & symbols), thus allowing for a definition of action, deeds and behaviours.
2.3 The subject is necessary, for without it, there is nobody to do
justice to and ethical intent is non-existent.
No justification of action without, on the one hand, objective goals and/or values and,
on the other hand, the subjective power of indeterminism, i.e. the exclusive privilege of the
First Person Perspective (FPP).
3.1 Ethics functions in accord with the transcendental principles of
thought as defined by transcendental logic (cf.
Clearings, 2006). To answer the question : "What must I do ?",
develop, by means of duality, the dual structure of thought into a fourfold of norms
exhausting the possibilities of theoretical ethics.
3.2 The object of ethics is a sedimentation of action, deeds &
behaviours, while its subject is the intent driving the coordinations of
movement implied by values and goals.
3.3 Free will & coordinations are put together to avoid impairing
ethics by confusing its principles and hence clouding its decrees.
Ethics as a normative system.
4. The moral norms
uncovered by critical ethics answer :
(a) how good actions and their
propagation are possible and (b) how ethical judgments must be performed. They
take form as a necessary division, a quaternio
of critical ethical factors, developing the dual structure of the logic of
ethics : "I" versus
"not-I". In-between subject and object, actions are at hand.
4.1 The subject of ethics is either confirmed ("this is I") or denied
("this is not I"), yielding the difference between subject (affirm) and object
(deny). To define, from without, this inner distinction further, it is made to balance
(a) subjectively and (b) objectively.
4.2 Identify the subject of ethics with conscious intent and its object
(the other beings) with duty. Then the first (subjective) harmonization involves
conscience and its second (objective) harmonization is calling. Intent, duty,
conscience and calling form a quaternio
of necessary ethical factors.
4.2.1 The first harmonization involves a stable but transient trinity
of factors : intent, duty & conscience. It represents the Order of Fairness.
4.2.2 The second harmonization, stable and enduring, integrates intent,
duty & calling. This is rightness.
4.2.3 Goodness is fairness with rightness.
4.3 All beings belonging to the kingdoms of nature are possible objects
of ethics. Water, Air and other crucial chemical compounds are objects due to
their life-sustaining capacities. Minerals by virtue of the geometrical
architecture between their molecules. Plants in terms of photosynthesis and the ecosystem. Animals because of their capacity
of motility and affectivity. Humans
in view of their conscious thought and, as
minimum minimorum, the ability to create new and better circumstances for all
sentient beings on planet Earth.
4.3.1 All objects of ethics are sentient, i.e. derived and/or based on
natural light, luminosity and the photon.
4.3.2 For all sentient beings, the path of action is coercive, and so
5. The architecture of normative ethics must be in tune with the
transcendental conditions of thought and with the dualism of the selfsame
conditions of action, deed & behaviour, encompassing both the objective,
teleological (consequential), as well as the deontological, subjective
(universalizing) perspective on ethics as defined by these traditional systems.
5.1 The transcendental conditions of thought state that both object and
subject of thought are necessary and irreducible
5.2 An exclusive focus on the transcendental object of
ethics generates consequential systems (exclusively judging the consequences of action
in terms of goals & values), whereas positing the ideal subject implies a universalizing ethics (exclusively
judging the intent and the rules of duty in terms of a generalization of the
outcome of action).
5.2.1 Consequential systems of ethics define objective conditions and
classes of coordinated movement. They measure the final goals of action. They
eclipse the importance of free intent as well as the influence of conscience on
action. Focusing on the immediate and the direct, they lack an overall
perspective. Statute-law is avoided.
5.2.2 Deontological systems work out (inter)subjective rules of valid
generalization and focus on the intent of action. They avoid the circumstantial
and deny context, locality and probability (chaos) to enter into the equation.
Casus-law is ousted.
5.3 Critical ethics tries to harmonize both intent (consequence) and duty
(rules). It does so by
bringing the extremes back to the "middle path" and
linking fairness with rightness.
5.3.1 Fairness is applied justice. Here, the formal side of goodness is
realized. This is the justice of equality, the application of the "letter" of
the law. It is only fair to expect justice. Rules, consequence and conscience
lead to fairness. This is what must be done.
5.3.2 Rightness is applied goodness. It has broken out of the
limitations of the letter and is able, through wisdom, to witness both sides of
the balance, take into account all relevant elements and pronounce "the spirit"
of the law. This is what care does.
6. Objectifying, teleological ethics posits the empirico-formal rule
gratification & usefulness. In subjectifying, deontological ethics calls free
will to obey the rule
6.1 Consequential ethics elaborates upon the
spatiotemporal relativity of statistically significant needs & goals, and this
without integrating personal happiness (private self-regard) and the specificity of ethical issues.
However, in an insentient universe, good and evil have no status. No
physical fact is better than another.
6.1.1 Gratification is satisfaction nourishing personal happiness.
Limited by time, place and person, it forms unending longings. Objective
ethics have no idea about internal, intimate & private matters.
6.1.2 Usefulness extends from one person to the planet as a whole (and
may -theoretically- encompass the whole universe). In practical terms, it
reflects the common good cherished by the ruling class. Thus, to control the
access to this good is the
principal cause of conflicts, disputes and wars.
6.1.3 The utilitarian law dictates that under any given circumstance, the
action which produces the greatest amount of happiness on the whole (taking into
account all whose happiness is touched by this), is objectively right. Extend
this consequential law by judging any favorable consequence of an action,
moving beyond happiness
6.2 Deontological ethics cannot escape the laws
devised to regulate intersubjective contact. Being statute-laws, they address
the existential nature of intersubjective contacts in terms of duty. This is the
respect for the "pure" moral law, dictating that we must treat others as the
persons we ourselves are, even if this thwarts our inclinations to gratify
ourselves and make other humans useful to ourselves. Duty humbles self-love.
6.2.1 Agreeableness, the active ingredient of satisfaction -even the
promotion of the happiness of others- does not, in this scheme, consist in the
conception of the moral law in itself, for it would not require the will of a
rational being conceiving the moral law.
6.2.2 Moral value cannot depend on the reality of the object of the
action at hand (values or goals), but merely on the principle of volition in the
assumed total absence of any activity of desire.
6.2.3 The moral law demands that "I" must never act in such a way that "I"
could not will that my ethical norm should not be a universal law, and this for
the sake of the law (morality) and not by mere compliance to it (legality).
6.2.4 The moral law thus defined is never in touch with the desires, but
only with thought. Unable to understand the full implications of goodness,
namely fairness and rightness based on desire, free will and reason, exclusivist
deontology, by lack of care, does not exclude cruelty nor mild psychopathy.
Teleological ethics, based on either a higher good or on the
principle of utility, accommodate desire and its principle of pleasure or
happiness. The happiness principle holds that actions are good, right or just
when they promote pleasure. Classical utilitarism concludes : as some kinds of
pleasures are more desirable and valuable than others, a scale of goodness is
possible, with the greatest good to the greatest number on top. Preference
utilitarism tries to bring about the fulfillment of preferences and is called
7. In critical ethics, happiness, fairness & rightness are possible by allowing,
as much as possible,
both subject (intent, duty) and object (conscience, calling) of action to participate in
our ethical deliberations and in the moral or practical organization of our lives. In this way, one decides what to
do and what not to do, and this, as much as possible, in every instance of
7.1 Happiness is the fruit of gratification
or the repetition of agreeable experiences. All sentient beings seek happiness.
7.1.1 As long as the pursuit of happiness, fairness and rightness is made
to root in wrong desires, wrong volition and wrong thinking, human beings are
immensely dissatisfied and so suffer.
7.1.2 Wrong desires feed the impulse to attach or dislike. Wrong volition
drives action exclusively towards personal gain. Wrong thinking considers
subjects & objects as inherently existing substances.
7.2 Fairness is the outcome of conscientious justice, transcending
legality into morality out of sheer respect for the moral law.
7.3 Rightness is the outcome of the "turning of the wheel" of ethics. It
is the response of care to a calling acting as a transcendent observant disabling
any attempt to by-pass the fundamental horizon of all possible human action : to do
the good for all sentient beings, meaning to be fair and care.
7.4 Goodness, encompassing happiness, fairness & rightness, is impossible
without the total transformation of the actor. To not complete one's own
Self-realization (or the actuality of right mind, right action & right desire)
is to strand the project of ethics on the shores of egology.
7.4.1 Self-realization is not to acquire something which is not already
present, but to be fully aware of who one truly is in thought, desires and
7.4.2 To remove the mental clouds shielding the Sun from casting its rays of
awareness is the crucial metaphor.
8. If there is no actor to exert free will, it is impossible to say what someone ought to do or not to do. He who says "ought",
should at least accept the other in
his or her
strangeness. Only dictators do not.
8.1 Ethical models based on symmetry & homogeneity
between moral actors lack true equanimity resulting from difference &
asymmetry. They reflect the solitary ego and extend its existence to all other
8.1.1 Nobody has "my" spatio-temporal coordinates and overlaps the
sentient being "I" am.
8.1.2 Because of the lack of symmetry between "myself" and the "others",
there is the possibility of genuine goodness and not just the common good
necessary to organize the traffic.
8.2 The fundamental fact of ethics is the irreducible difference between
all moral actors hand in hand with their interrelatedness.
8.2.1 Difference does not exclude comparison, but all comparisons fail to
satisfy the conditions of right thinking, positing the uniqueness of every
8.2.2 Interrelatedness is (a) physical and (b) psychological.
Non-locality determines that all things emerge from the underlying universal
quantum field which connects every particle of the observable universe at speeds
exceeding that of light. A subject of experience is always part of an
intersubjective environment and hence in constant communication or exchange with
8.2.3 A solipsist subject would be a closed monad with no windows to
exchange anything. It would be a super-object posing as a subject and hence not
a subject at all. With self-regard maximalized, communication is impossible.
8.3 To leave an open place at the table (space), to never close one's
door for a stranger (time) and to accept the otherness of sentient beings
(person) are the three fundamentals of any ethical process between human beings.
9. The living core of ethics is the reciprocal acknowledgment of the
fundamental asymmetry between ethical actors.
9.1 The moment "I" am not identified with "You", there is an ethical
continuum in which exchange is possible and novel coordinations of movements may
9.2 Theoretical, discursive, cerebral, centrifugal thought destroys
otherness and its secret. It cannot conceive the intimate, and therefore
annihilates its possibility. Science seeks to dominate through universals, not
to serve this other in particular.
9.3 Practical, symbolical (hieroglyphic), centripetal intelligence "of
the heart", invites the stranger as he or she is, and negates any attempt to
reduce otherness. Hence, otherness is the revelation of unicity and brings into
existence new coordinations of movement.
9.3.1 Only if my own-Self is deemed a stranger to me can there be moral
development beyond fairness or excellence.
9.3.2 When the actor knows, feels and expresses his or her own sentient
core, fairness couples with rightness or sublimity.
9.4 In the case of a Cartesian ego or a Leibnizean monad, the "I" is a
permanent, substantial, essential, unchanging entity that exists in itself,
independent and disconnected from the "not-I". Such substantialist
egology is left when "I" and "not-I" mutually imply each other and cannot
be alienated from one another (either by reduction or by exclusion).
10. Satisfying either desire (hedonism), volition (utilitarism) or reason
(deontology), traditional ethics is unable to cause
both happiness, fairness and rightness for all sentient beings in concert. These
may, at their best, bring satisfaction, fairness & justice, which is not the same as
goodness, adding concern, care & rightness.
10.1 To view ethics as a normative discipline, implies unweaving the
crucial ethical factors of what is a good action and has always been the
necessary architecture of an example of goodness. This is like finding a
treasure of which one was not aware that it has always been there.
10.2 Normative disciplines such as epistemology, ethics and esthetics, do
not describe the true, the good and the beautiful, but lay bear the principles,
norms and maxims which have always been used to think true thoughts, do good
actions and produce beautiful sensations. Not the question "Quid factis ?",
but "Quid Iuris ?" engages them.
10.2.1 The sociology of goodness counts, compares and formulates
empirico-formal laws. It describes the actuality or absence of goodness. But the
principles, norms and maxims of goodness decree and engage. They prescribe what
must be done in order for goodness to be actual.
10.2.2 It is a fallacy to move from a mere description of goodness to
what is necessary for goodness. Descriptions are the casus-law of ethics
(morality), whereas obligations are its statute-laws.
10.2.3 Statute-laws are uncovered within. They were, are and will always
be there to assist critical ethics. Casus-law are identified without and are
altered hand in hand with the actor and his or her history. They help the
development of applied ethics or morality.
The subject of action or the freedom of initiation.
11. In order to act on intent, the actor must exercise his or her free
will, i.e. be able to move in the absence of external impediments.
11.1 Suppose, ad absurdum, predestination, fate or destiny to be
true. Then, all movements, actions, deeds & behaviours are determined by the
complex of anterior determining factors like causality, the Fates, Providence or
the Will of God or Gods. If so, there is no uncertainty in nature allowing the
subject to freely choose between two possibilities, except fictionally. Ergo,
there is only movement and no coordinations of movement, and thus no action and
no actor. With the moral actor reduced to a mere mover, ethics becomes the
object of a closed Newtonian physics.
11.2 Besides being in contradiction with the probabilism of contemporary
physics, determinism (the modern version of predestination)
faces a major logical problem : if all things are determined, then how
can this determination be described without in some way, in the
very act of description, transcending it ? How to avoid the
contradictio in actu exercito ?
11.3 Epistemologically, one may wonder
how the subject of knowledge can be eclipsed hand in hand with a
description of this "fact" ? Behold the contradiction : although refusing the
subject of knowledge any independence from the object of knowledge, the
former is necessarily implied in the refusal.
11.4 All movement is external and the outer world knows of many
impediments. Linear and non-linear movements constitute the process between the
four physical forces & the numerous, photon-based particles constituting the architecture of the observable universe.
12. Besides (a) the negative side of liberty (i.e. to be free from internal
dependences of external determinations) and (b) its positive side (i.e. the active
possibility to be autonomous, independent and self-conditioning), free will
is a nondetermined choice, or the actual physical possibility to escape the
probabilistic determinism of matter.
12.1 The approach of both momentum and architecture is probabilistic, for
Newtonian determinism has been superseded by relativity, quantum, chaos and
string, revolutionalizing cosmology, nuclear physics and mathematics. The margin
of error allowed by these equations is the principle of indeterminacy of
12.2 Exerting free will is a highly complex operation, involving the
seeking & finding of the small interval or isthmus of uncertainty within
probable processes surrounding its manifestation.
12.3 Without free will, there is no difference between the coming of
goodness and the manifestation of the physical universe. In this case, ethics
would be one of these manifestations. Instead, critical ethics lays bear the
necessity and possibility of making excellent and sublime use of certain physical margins of
13. In order for "me" to exercise "my" free will, the individual "I" am
cannot be reduced to anything else. Egoism, or the humanism of the ego, dictates
that nothing is more to "me" than "myself". Hence, "I" must be able to act as
"I" like to act or not to act. The freedom of initiation is wholly rooted in the
13.1 Ad absurdum, maximalize egology, and make the ego absolute.
By taking the owner serious, the ego is the ultimate ideality. It accepts the
presence of other ego's, but must treat them as if they were objects.
Hence, all value put on those objects are creatures of the ego, who acts as their
13.2 The egoist, pursuing no other goal, considers only the actors’ own
13.2.1 As the egoist has degenerated reason, the actor's own welfare is
the satisfaction of desire in terms of one's own emotions and physical kicks.
13.2.2 In mythological terms, the animal nature of the egoist has been
sullied by a degenerated reason and has turned the human into a Beast.
13.2.3 Beasts in the wilderness, the "war of all against all", and the
hierarchy of might are the outcome of egology. Insofar as the Beast must love
suffering, it always creates its own downfall.
14. In order for "my" actions to escape the "war of all against all", "I"
must consider every possible "other" as "I" consider "myself". Altruism, or the
humanism of "the other", as given by reason, dictates that nothing will humanize "me" more than
participate in the humanization of "the other" and live in accord with this
14.1 There is an "I" because there is a "not-I" and vice versa.
Thought cannot escape its own necessities.
14.2 The "war of all against all" is replaced by the "contract of all
with all". Neither in duty will ethical tensions resolve.
15. The reciprocity of altruism is the recognition of "You" as "myself".
15.1 To observe the "I" is to realize its momentum. Although taken as a
piece of architecture, the "I" is more like a stream. This movement is
perceived, but has diurnal, nocturnal, monthly and seasonal fluctuations.
15.2 The impermanence of identity brings the various interrelationships between
subjects to the fore. Instead of scattered pieces, subjects & objects are
modules which are part of communicational networks and their energy. As in dissipative
systems, they are defined by their connectivity, redundancy and complexity.
15.3 Although the "I" is not a substance existing inherently, it does
exist as the seat of free will. Although its existence is more like a
fluctuating but coherent pattern of coordinated movements though space-time, it
is the more or less fixed continuum of this pattern called "I" which initiates
action, gives meaning to movements and manipulates the margins of nature.
16. Formal, universalizing ethics, of which the three forms of deontological ethics,
imperative, contractual and righteous, are transgressive sublimations, makes reason dictate
the free will.
16.1 Insofar desire is the sole lawgiver, reason has to be degenerated.
Insofar reason is the sole lawgiver, free will has to be willingly handicapped.
16.2 Deontological ethics are transgressive because they run against the
principles of transcendental logic. By eliminating the object of ethics, an
indifferent and imperative system of rules is deduced. These are sublimations
resulting from the unconditional within reason, in this case eclipsing the
object of thought.
The object of action and physical determination.
17. Actions are either done to realize a goal or to
implement a value.
17.1 A goal is an objective state of affairs to be realized now or in the
17.2 A value is a subjective merit considered worthwhile or desirable.
18. Goals limit action by resisting intent with their own-form.
18.1 Physical limitations (inertia) slow down the realization of intent
and are overcome by enduring repetition.
18.2 By eroding inertia, a new set of coordinations is introduced,
co-sustaining the mental operators of process and emancipation.
19. Values co-determine action by imposing their own-form on intent.
19.1 Merit requires free intent.
19.2 Values presuppose a relative intersubjective stability of desires
and reasoning or traditions related to creativity and growth. Hence, negative
values presuppose destruction and decay.
20. Insofar as goals and values are of desire, they are objects of
teleological ethics and generate the "war of all against all". Insofar as they are
objects of reason, they appear in deontological ethics as imposed by Operation
Duty, feeding the shadow of guilt.
20.1 Operation Duty, the contrary of egology, is forced humanism. The
egoism of the individual is compromised by and relinquished for that of the
collective, in whatever form.
20.1.1 The moment, by giving "my" violent response away to the state, "I"
loose the possibility to kill whenever "I" like and whoever "I" like, egology
can no longer be lethal in an acute sense.
20.1.2 "My" violent response is replaced by
the monopoly of violence held by the state. This causes conflicts between
states, as well as within the fabric of Operation Duty itself (killing is wrong
but necessary in war).
20.1.3 Because of the inherent imbalance between desire and reason, the corruption
of Operation Duty is inevitable.
20.1.4 Better a corrupted, guilt-striken sense of duty than no duty at
20.1.5 Conscious (ethical) egoism is preferable to covert (bourgeois)
egoism pretending altruism (i.e. hypocrizy).
20.2 In the equation of the Order of Fairness, desires are bound to
overturn reason, degenerate it and feast in the wilderness. Hence, the "contract
of all with all" is also the "lie of all against all".
20.2.1 The human body is rooted in primate desires, urges
and volitions. The thinking capacity is limited and untrained. What more is
needed to conclude most humans feast like Beasts ?
20.2.2 Although contracts help to regulate the tragedy of egology and
fairness, they can be broken. Feeding a cold sense of justice, contractualism
fosters the blind workings of dossier-logic.
21. The realization of a goal engenders a new goal. The recognition of
value entails another value. Is there an end to the sliding scale of goals &
21.1 Human undertakings based on egoistical & intersubjective goals and values produce more suffering
than pleasure, happiness, fairness or rightness.
21.2 Suppose our actions succeed, which is not necessarily the case. Then
we either :
(a) realize our success after again losing it ;
(b) are bound to seek a new object as soon as fulfillment is actual ;
(c) witness the atrophy of the mere pleasurable after repetition and
driven into the despair of boredom which eliminates all goals and values. Thus
the human Beast suffers more than the animal.
21.2.1 The necessity with which a second object arises after the
elimination of the first in the fire of desire and excellence, is given by the
conditioned origination of all sentient activity.
21.2.2 The satisfaction of pleasure causes the quest for a new object to
annihilate, prompting yet another search, etc.
21.3 Goals and values form a circle of dependent causes. Success and
fulfillment generate new goals and values, allowing for the repetition of the
pleasurable, the desirable and the excellent.
21.3.1 The pleasurable, the desirable and the excellent are prone to swift decay and
demand, to maintain impulse, an exponential rise of input, which is untenable.
Saturation of wants (diminishing returns) and decreasing marginal value
21.3.2 Excellence can be consolidated into traditions by thought and its
signs (signals, icons & symbols). These last longer but their trace runs deeper.
Over time, any original mistake is enlarged. The result being a cacophony of
22. Affective, consequential, teleological ethics, in its two forms of
eudemonic (producing happiness and well-being) & utilitarian (serving
immediate utility), is a goal & value-oriented transgressive sublimation making desire becharm reason and free will.
22.1 Because it appeals to desire, affective ethics overpowers the
rationale of deontology.
22.2 In the trinity of factors covering the Order of Fairness, namely
intent, duty & conscience, desire unleashed by free will exceeds the rationality
of duty, except in mediocrity and the dulling of intent.
22.3 The transgression of affective ethics lies in its neglect of reason
and the universal principles, norms and maxims of thought, action and sensation.
22.3.1 A priori. Without a subject of ethics (a someone striving),
objects have no meaning.
22.3.2 A posteriori. If all goodness depended on pleasure and
utility alone, the "war of all against all" would not be the bestial fact of
human history. Bestial behaviour
would lead to peace, not to the rule of shared pain.
Moral science, moral philosophy & critical ethics.
23. Moral science observes, analyzes, systematizes and explains what is
present in society in terms of moral phenomena. Moral science also "tests" the
latter by way of logic, observation and pragmatism. Here justice is an
option, never a must.
23.1 When carefully applied, moral science is multi-disciplinary and
integrates crucial data of biology, anthropology, psychology, sociology, economy
23.1.1 In mammals with long memories, primate ethics, based on kinship &
23.1.2 Humans are special animals able to manipulate natural selection
and develop culture.
23.1.3 Sensation, desire, volition, reason and consciousness drive the
psyche of the human.
23.1.4 Not consanguinity nor race, but shared norms, goals & values,
consolidating a fertile process of communication, produce lasting social bonds.
23.4.5 A planetary economy commands respect for all living creatures on
planet Earth and brings into effect the social, just & caring ideals of
planetary participationism, allowing for the satisfaction of most desires
within the framework of detachment, transformation and the sanation of reason
by a new humanism.
23.4.6 Spiritual hedonism does not exist.
23.2 Insofar as moral science is also multi-cultural, the wisdom of
common sense may come into focus. This is not the wisdom of
24. Moral philosophy, acknowledging the crucial data offered by moral science,
tries to approach moral phenomena in a reflective way.
24.1 Insofar as moral philosophy
is constituted by trans-empirical concepts, it is but a precritical attempt to formulate a
mere metaphysical justification of actions, deeds
& behaviours in terms of an explicit or presupposed, realist or idealist
24.2 Religious ethics have abused precritical logic by clinging to
revealed dogma, brewing various onto-theologies of the Abrahamic Deity,
afflicting free will with predestination and direct mystical experience with the
stake. Facing self-refuting statements deemed irrefutable (axiomatic), nothing
else is left than to posit another option.
24.3 When atheism backs statements with realist or idealist
presuppositions, like the existence of a solid world "out there" or the presence
of a substantial Self "in here", it is precritical. Critical atheism needs to
refute the arguments backing the existence of the Divine (cf.
the Divine exist ?, 2005).
24.3.1 Atheism denies the existence of the Divine in all possible
denominations. Has this denial had any influence on the religious attitudes of
most Westerners educated by the atheist elite ?
24.3.2 On the crucial issue of Divinity, agnosticism remains indecisive.
Only superficiality & mediocrity are able to treat something important as trivial.
25. Critical ethics is a moral philosophy constituted by the
transcendental conditions of coordinated movements and free will, implying
conscious intent, design, meaning and a nondeterminated choice. Thinking intent,
duty, conscience & calling, it makes moral
valuations in terms of the goodness of actions, deeds & behaviours. Here,
fairness & rightness are a necessity, an ought called to be a good choice, i.e. free, happy,
fair and caring.
25.1 Free because the subject of ethics is endowed with free will.
25.2 Happy because desires can be transformed & satisfied.
25.3 Fair because the conditions of reason are fulfilled.
25.4 Caring because it enacts the unconditional core of charity.
26. Critical ethics opts to combine the truth-core of both earlier deontological and
teleological approaches. On the one hand, justification of action depends on the
rationality of intersubjective duty (implying generalization) and, on the other hand, on the quality of
the goals or values intended and by which desire is objectively gratified
A priori, critical ethics is a two-tiered system of statute-law and case-law.
27. Conflicts of interest between
duty and intended gratification demand an ethical evaluation by conscience, seeking
a balance between both.
28. With the addition of conscience, the conflict between afflictive
egoism and legalistic altruism achieves an unstable closure. Project Fairness is able to
increase material wealth, but not for all and not without the iron cage of alienation,
mass-manipulation, hypocrisy & mediocrity.
29. Critical ethics draws the line between personal & transpersonal
29.1 Personal ethics involves intent (goals and values of desire), duty (a
rational free choice) and conscience (or the inner organ of ethical evaluation between,
on the one hand,
the affective ethics of intent, and, on the other hand, the formal ethics of duty). It culminates
as fairness in all matters.
29.2 Transpersonal ethics involves
a calling or vocation, the outer organ attracting a renewed conscious intent, causing (a)
Self-realization, (b) Self-annihilation and (c) Self-recollection in Radical
29.2.1 Self-realization is the constant awareness of the true own-form of
consciousness, which is of the nature of transparency, light, brightness,
clarity and luminescence.
29.2.2 The own-Self is burned in the fires of unconditional charity.
29.3.3 The own-Self is reborn in every fair act of rightness, positing just
compassion for all sentient beings, teaching by example the antidote to
afflictive affects and uncontrolled desire.
30. The horizontal plane connecting intent with duty defines the divergent interconnectedness
between ethical subjects. The vertical plane connecting conscience with calling
defines the convergent evolution of a person's ethical sensibilities. The
horizontal calls for fairness, the vertical calls for rightness.
30.1 Theoretical ethics is regulated by the idea of an ideal community of
intelligent & sensitive communicators, a body of sign-interpreters
constituting the horizontal plane. In practice,
the vertical plane is put into place by "filling in" calling with super-ego and
its constant sublimations. When thus manipulated, calling is wishful thinking.
30.1.1 To be called does not belong to the nominal process of ethical
evolution. The unstable closure at this level is caused by the pull of desire
and the feebleness of reason. The tragic truth is hidden by display and the
repetitive re-confirmation of pointless excellence.
30.1.2 Placing the transpersonal factor of our ethical equation between
brackets leads to unwholesome fossilizations.
30.1.3 Taking calling aboard is witnessing the gap leading to absolute thought, a
brief opening for man to forsake his Beast.
30.2 The first closure, the Order of Fairness, ends with unfairness. The
gravitational pull of a free will deeply entrenched by afflictive affects fed by
a degenerated reason, is too great to allow for anything else but sublimation &
30.3 Only if the human hears his or her call, can the fluctuations caused
by desires be reduced and put to rest. The sand cannot sink to the bottom as
long as the glass is being stirred.
30.4 To perceive the Order of Fairness may give rise to great pessimism.
This awareness of possible suffering is a great teacher and leads to a concerted
effort to carefully listen to the call and realize one's true nature.
30.5 The only purpose of suffering is to trigger the quest for the
own-Self and beyond.
Teleological and deontological transgressions.
31. Consequential ethics make the goodness of an action
exclusively depend on
the object (goals and/or value) desired by the free will and/or rationalized by
the mind. When thinking goodness, they eliminate "pure" reason a priori.
Universalizing ethics understand, in accord with the transcendental subject of
ethics, good behaviours in terms
of the rational imperative of duty. They eliminate
goals and values as sources of goodness.
31.1 The transgressions mimic the perversa ratio or ontological
illusion as given by critical epistemology (cf.
31.1.1 The conceptual mind (defined by anterational, rational and
critical thought, affects & actions) is dualistic and works with the difference
between object & subject.
31.1.2 Foundational epistemologies aim, by reduction of the dyad to the
monad, to eliminate the necessary concordia discors or armed truce of the
mind. Either objectivism, in the guise of subject-less realism, or subjectivism,
as object-less idealism, thus serve the aim of grounding knowledge outside
31.1.3 The duality of the conceptual mind must not be
eliminated. To use this tool well is the
object of normative philosophy. Abuse its architecture and the empirical-formal
propositions of science cannot be fully argued, tested and reargued, slowing
down the development of knowledge.
31.2 When the theoretical connotations of observation are not accepted,
the object of knowledge is as it appears and a one-to-one relationship can be
established. The error of realism is to consider knowledge without the knower.
31.2.1 Realism is apparent in ethical systems reducing the ego's
own-ness to values and goals. The ego's privatim is not a generatim.
31.2.2 The objects & states aimed at in consequential ethics never
represent the "common good" (which is not a reality but a regulative
limit-idea), for not the good of all private values & goals is realized, but
merely a pleasing idea invented by the ruling classes (the wealthy, the
intellectuals, the politicians, etc, representing usually only ca.10% of the
31.3 When the symbolical creativity of the human is made to constitute
reality, the subject of knowledge thinks reality and the laws of mind reflect
those of being. The error of idealism is to consider the knower without the
31.3.1 Ethical idealism dictates us to act as if the Kingdom of Ends is with
us now, although, in fact, this is not the case.
31.3.2 Deontological systems lack the capacity to consider what is needed
to bring the Kingdom actually about. These elements are considered "impure" and
circumstantial, although universal thought is only appropriate if it can be
applied as local compassion & care.
32. Critical ethics, being in accord with its own conditions of operation, cannot
eliminate the object of ethics (goals & values), nor the subject of ethics
(categorial imperative) without a contradictio in actu exercito. This it wants
32.1 One extreme. Suppose there are no moral values & goals (the object
of ethics). These are the sedimentations of generalized intent. How to define
ethics without someone acting ?
32.2 Another extreme. Suppose ethics has no subject. Without free will,
all choices are defined by the laws of physics. How to define ethics without
freedom (and thus responsibility) ?
32.3 The middle ground accepts the dual conditions of conceptual thought
and the limitations both entail, thrusting the moving, conceptual mind out of
the worn pantheon of Platonic or Peripatetic eternalization.
the genesis of a sense of justice.
33. Moral science does not derive "ought" from nature or imperatives from
indicatives (naturalistic fallacy), but describes the moral phenomenon without
the necessity of goodness, the latter being an option, not an imperative.
34. Moral science focuses on facts, trying to produce an empirico-formal,
scientific theory dictating scientific moral laws. Moral laws, being relative
and historical, are not moral
35. Because of its limitations, moral science is unable to articulate
ethical goals and values, nor give way to the irreducible necessity of freedom
in a possible critical moral philosophy. A series of facts is not a goal. Merit
is not a description of virtue. So can moral science be a reliable foundation to
erect a just political system ? No.
36. In accord with natural selection & sociobiology, moral science
discovered primate ethics involving kinship, sexuality & reciprocity. It
also made clear the crucial difference between the animal and the human kingdom
: human can rise above the exigencies of natural selection, other species of
37. Relative genetical epistemology, moral science describes the
sense of justice found in each and every Homo Sapiens sapiens as a
cognitive phenomenon evolving in six universal stages of growth, involving
three major reference-groups are crucial, namely family, school and peers.
38. According to moral science, the highest moral stage is reached when
moral choices are determined by
personal conscience, encompassing both intent & duty.
38.1 Insofar as the Order of Fairness is concerned, the conclusions of moral science and critical ethics overlap. The deficit of this order is the lack of
enthusiasm and engaging intent. After a lot of work, the meaning of life
still remains unclear. The bravest persevere in fairness and do the right thing.
38.2 The Order of Fairness is an unstable closure, leading to turbulence
and calamity. The latter invite the creative impulse to secure planetary
survival and the rise of a new humanism.
ego & intent as sources of ethics.
39. Traditional moral philosophy gave transempirical
and/or ontological grounds to what
ought to be done to be good, i.e. happy, fair and caring. Critical moral philosophy operates a
quaternio of ethical factors based on the transcendental conditions of
coordinated movement and free will, of which the first one implies ego.
39.1 Traditional morality never tried to find the middle way
between the extremes of freedom and necessity. In more than one way, if
preferred necessity to freedom. To think freedom is to curtail the gods, God or
39.2 The necessity of the fourfold of theoretical ethics is given by
following the ethical process and recording the logic of its foundational &
pivotal moments : initiation (subject, intent), confrontation (object, duty),
first unstable closure (subject, conscience), second stable closure (object,
40. Action is exclusively initiated
by the actor. There must be a someone doing the something which
ethics must evaluate. To relinquish this evidence is to cripple ethics and turn
it into a face, as happens in some religious ethics and in totalitarian systems.
40.1 In religious ethics, the role of the individual is to serve his or
her Deity at the expense of personal freedom. The problem of desire is abrogated
by trying to eliminate desire by repressing its passions. In this way, the shadow is fed
and projected on the adherents of other religions (following "false" Gods) or on
the unbelievers. This procedure is disastrous.
40.1.1 History holds the dramatic record of the tragi-comic failures of
religious ethics. Insofar religions are moral systems rooted in the so-called
transcendent, irrefutable, permanent substance, entity or ground, morality has
been elitist, unjust and against the human. How difficult is it to remain
40.1.2 The failure of religious ethics is the failure to truly connect
the human with the Divine. Revelations (of the so-called "holy" word of God),
canonizations (of texts, people and institutions) and religious traditions fail
to deliver their promise and do not liberate their adherents, on the contrary.
The latter are chained to manmade institutions and the slavery continues on a
more abstract register.
40.1.3 Religious fundamentalism makes the point
of these deductions : turn religion into a simplistic death-loving (neo) fascism and
witness how indoctrinated adherents are willing
to take their own lives in addition of those of innocent children or fellow
40.1.4 Humanism, disguised as egoism or altruism, cannot renew the human
spirit. A new, pan-humanism is called for.
40.2 In totalitarian systems, the collectivity (ruled by an elite) is
deemed more important than the individuals defining society. Left extremism and
(neo) fascism both relinquish the rights & duties of the individual for the sake of
their irrationalisms. Their leaders are dictators in disguise, posing with an
ideal they themselves cannot actualize.
40.2.1 Both religious fundamentalism and totalitarian systems express the rule of
40.2.2 If one leaves the Beast to do his or her thing, life on planet
Earth soon dies, the Beast included.
40.2.3 Persons are entitled to choose not to interact with Beasts, for as
long as every social contact with these people pollutes body, energy & mind,
their presence must be part of renunciation.
41. Determinism, predestination & fatalism contradict critical ethics.
One cannot judge an action, deed or behavior if the actor is not free to act as
he or she wills. This freedom may be called a free movement of the subject
(i.e. psychological or anthropological), but also a co-relative, ongoing
slipping through the margins of the principle of indeterminacy of physics.
41.1 The system of Nature operates matter, information and consciousness.
Matter knows uncertainty, information redundancy and consciousness ignorance (of
the nature of mind).
41.2 Consciousness, constantly interacting with (and supported by) matter and information,
is (a) able to make beneficial use of the conditions imposed upon forces &
particles (hardware) and (b) to redefine terms and/or select other axioms
(userware) for its expert-systems (software).
41.3 Neurophilosophy and neurotheology (cf.
Spiritual Mindbrain, 2003) differentiate between 3 interlinked
neurological computers (original hardware uploaded with specific software).
41.3.1 Differentiate between (a) the
reptilian brain : brain stem, midbrain,
hypothalamus ; (b) the
mammalian brain : thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala and (c) the
human brain : neocortex of cerebral hemispheres of cerebrum & angular
41.3.2 Various functions have been
attributed to each of these three parts of the brain, characterized by a
different structure and chemistry, yet extensively interconnected.
41.3.3 The human brain computes all higher functions. Its prefrontal lobe
processes identity, whereas (in the right-handed) the left hemisphere involves
analytical higher order approaches (language & speech), usually dominating the
right hemisphere (or lateralization). The latter computes synthetical approaches
and is a gateway to the emotional brain.
41.3.4 The mammalian brain computes emotional states. This involves an
elaborate emotional circuit, fairly isolated from the human brain and its
conceptualizations. Its task is to flavor incoming & outgoing data-streams with affective
41.3.5 The reptilian brain computes all basic survival needs. It acts as
filter and master modulator of all cerebral activity and defines basal
41.4 Interactionism upholds the irreducible operational distinction
between consciousness, information and matter, and posits a constant interaction
between the brain (as a hardware/software-unit) and consciousness.
41.4.1 Consciousness is not caused, produced, secreted or created by the
brain. It acts through and with the latter. Its natural station is beyond time
and space but reflects in its conditioned states.
41.4.2 The logical set characterizing consciousness is not identical with
that of information and/or matter. The numerics of consciousness are complex,
those of information natural and those of matter unreal.
41.4.3 Each operator interacts with the other as a function of its
logical possibilities. Consciousness slips through the margins of
quantum physics. Information standardizes states of matter into glyphs ("0" or
"1"). Matter solidifies both meaning and expertise by computation, processing
and the ongoing play of architecture and momentum.
42. The intent of an ego possessing desire,
super-ego, shadow, free will and
cognition is the source of all action & so the initiator of whatever human beings do
to themselves, their direct environment, society, the world and the Divine
(insofar as this is possible).
42.1 Depth-psychology pictures the waking ego as a small candle wandering
in the vast, dark storehouse of the psyche. Driven by desires dictating
passions (lust & unlust) & feelings, the ego needs to adapt to the realities of its milieu. It introjects
the goals & values of its parents, teachers & peers (super-ego) and rejects
conflicting impulses (shadow). Its free will is constantly torn between
afflictive affects (feeling) and unreal projections & conceptualizations
42.2 The confused, ignorant pool of rationalizations (feelings into
thought) and emotional thinking (thought into affects) is the swamp to be
cleared. Humanism leads to psychoanalysis.
42.3 A clear and strong intent sustained for as long as needed initiates.
42.3.1 Clarity is achieved by balancing the five components of the human
: sensation, feeling, volition, reasoning & consciousness. Strength is achieved
by the disciplined, diligent practice of the actual harmony or natural health of
42.3.2 Identification with or rejection of objects of desire cause the
degeneration of reason.
42.3.3 Desire causes change in feelings and triggers volition.
42.3.4 In the Homo normalis, desire usually outlaws reason.
42.3.5 Only with great effort can the incomplete closure offered by
Project Fairness bring about an unstable good.
43. The humanization of the ego is the ego taking care for what pleases
the ego and avoiding what displeases it. To act for one's own sake alone, inevitably leads to the
"war of all
against all", to authoritarianism & the culture of slavery.
43.1 The hierarchy of the Beast is one of fear, domination and pain. The
Beast is conscious of what it does and causes. Its catechism is one of might and
43.2 Although aware of the other, the egoist tries to objectify the
someone into a something.
43.3 Although aware of the ego, fake altruism rarefies it to the point of
hypocrisy and personal despair.
44. The ego is its own. Imprisoned as an abject slave owned by a
master, the ego is present to itself. This own-ness or egoism is the creator of
44.1 It is pointless to try to eliminate the ego. In doing so, only
super-ego is affirmed and these "higher values" of the Beast are worse than its
44.2 Hellish cultural forms degenerate our youth, damaging their
ability to communicate and interact. This nullifies any attempt at spiritual
emancipation. As so many satans stuck in ice, the moral development of the low
life is halted.
44.3 Egoism is a necessary factor in the equation of ethics. It is the
starting-point which needs to be superseded by duty, conscience and calling. Ego
cannot be a slave, even not when caged as one. Only in physical death is the ego broken.
45. Insofar as freedom is conquered by the ego, it creates
new boundaries to be conquered, etc. Freedom can be taken away, own-ness not.
own-ness is not an idea but
is everything owned, or a description of the owner. To the ego, own-ness is more
important than freedom.
45.1 As far as the egoist is concerned, the others are objects to be owned.
To seduce properly, to find the adequate chain and a way to bind, constitutes the
art and science of personal gain.
45.2 Own-ness points to the exclusivity of "my" space-time and the FPF.
This does necessarily invoke a substantial ego (as in the present ethics), but
generally it does. Egoism turns ego into an absolute. In that case, ego = God
46. Historically, humanism, working in liberalism as well as traditional
socialism, separated the "idea of man" from "my" own-ness. Creating a fiction,
man became an idol worshipped in terms of the religion of the Free State.
Privatim was turned into generatim, and "my" own-ness or
fundamental egoism was
46.1 Liberalism has advanced the ego under the flag of individuality, but
without introducing libertinism, its natural ally. Thus it does not lead to the true
freedom of the ego, but to the minimal version of altruism, conflictual contractualism.
46.2 In repressive communism, the fiction is "the People". In socialism, the
"working classes". In both cases, the egoism of the human (on all
sides) is not taken seriously.
46.3 Fed by the myth of the Golden Age, both systems have no eye for
their long-term impact on the eco-system. Ravishing Earth, they ultimately
destroy the conditions of life itself. At this point, the nations are called to
47. The humanism of the ego is the cult of egoism, mindless selfish
gratifications, sensualism, passion and the use of freedom to express own-ness,
through slavery, i.e. the power to control and destroy what is owned. To
humanize the ego is to teach the Beast how to excel in the evil it does best.
48. Selfish freedom is (a) completed in the almighty ego, recognizing the
Beast it really is, and (b) secured by making the world its own, i.e. gained it
and taken possession of it for ego alone, by all means : might, persuasion,
petition, demand, hypocrisy, cheating, lying, tricking, etc. The ego is the
father of all lies.
49. The love of the almighty ego, is the lashing whip carving the stigmata of
dominion upon the torn flesh of slaves worshipping the Ego-is-God of their
evil master-owners. Might is right.
49.1 The almighty ego is a fascist sadist, while the masochistic slave
perverts this sadism, turning it against the humiliated ego.
49.1.1 These hyperbolic expressions aim to convey the volatile and
bombastic drama of the displays of the ego, in particular related to power,
money and sex.
49.1.2 Power gives control and because it is confused with might and
dominion leads to lack of control and unbalance. Money gives gross satisfactions
numbing the senses without their subtle counterparts, which cannot be bought. Sex
49.2 Although mostly carried out to satisfy perverted pleasure (not emancipation), sado-masochism is usually moral and involves
inflicting psychological and moral pain to others.
49.3 To become conscious of the shadow is being able to accept, name and
integrate the demons of the ego.
49.3.1 Once integrated, mental unbalances are no longer projected upon
49.3.2 The "black box" procedure involving the retrieval of the
a psychosynthetic move to integrate the personality and establishing a
foundation for more subtle preoccupations.
49.3.3 Shadow-work is giving to the animal (mammalian & reptilian) side
of the human what belongs to the animal without creating the Beast, the "golem"
or "Frankenstein" of degenerated reason.
50. The religion of the
ego is the worship of ownership, i.e. the free will choice to bow before the
Beast, either as a victim or as a victimizer. Ego's religion is diabolism, the
reversal of conventional goodness and the worship of evil.
50.1 Diabolus est Deus inversus. Egoism is ruled by the principle of reversal for the
sake of the ego's ownership.
50.2 Egoism demands constant objectification, also of other ego's. To
bind them, the egoist knows how to fake altruism.
50.3 The tragedy of the life of the ego is the reluctance to deal with
this issue without being sedated by super-ego solutions.
50.4 Most ego's are too infatuated by the gross,
morality of their super-ego's to vent their bestial side overtly, giving
rise of neurosis and hypocrisy. Instead, it is projected outwards, creating
enemies, and/or kept inside the boundaries of their domestic lives (causing
adultery, domestic violence, moral sado-masochism, child abuse, incest, etc.).
50.5 Social control and longing for the satisfaction of worldly needs
(money, fame, sex, family, etc.) offer so many general values and goals enabling
overt or repressed egoists to become truly unhappy in their mediocrity.
51. Because intent and free will are owned by ego, critical ethics cannot
propose to altogether eliminate this source of moral evil. To acknowledge the
privatim implies to make way for the Beast, not to idolize a fanciful, a
priori idea about the Homo Sapiens sapiens.
51.1 Critical ethics acknowledges the ownership of the moral
initiator, namely the free will of the ego, and so intent opens the possibility
of a conscious or unconscious choice for evil and destruction, as dictated by
desire and a perverted reason.
51.2 Only when the personal psychosynthesis of the ego is completed, can
the Beast be said to be transformed from wrathful to protective.
52. The ego is a solipsist and
considers the existence of other ego's only insofar as they are or will be
owned, i.e. controlled and, if so willed, sold or destroyed. Egoist ethics &
politics are Plutocratic, i.e. true power lies in the hands of a small,
invisible, "infernal" elite deifying their egos.
52.1 In the course of human history, a small part of any population never
had to work to make a living. Deriving their power from ancestors, brutal force
or supposedly Divine beings, the traditional upper class mostly subdued those
willing to worship them. Slavery, in so many forms and guises, is the extreme
version of this situation. As a result of the worldwide changes triggered during
the Age of Enlightenment and thereafter, this exploitation was abolished in
most countries (although not completely).
52.2 With the advent of the democratic nations and the industrial
revolution, the upper classes turned Plutocratic and invested their money &
power in international corporate business, escaping the controls of individual
nations. Their outdated models are responsible for the massive destruction of our natural
resources. They institutionalize greed and a questionabe, limited &
ultimately dangerous view on
economy and well-being.
52.3 With the coming of the New Renaissance of a pan-humanism acting on a planetary scale,
these invisible destructive forces will come into the light and perish.
Eventually, a planetary solution to world problems will be implemented before
ecological disasters eliminate our race.
53. Because the ego, at times, and
this solely to
instrumentalize and for strategic reasons, thinks and communicates using signs
(in the form of signals, icons & symbols), other "master" ego's may be distinguished. The
subsequent "war of all against all", as well as the armed truce of legalism
(contractualism), hedonism, sociologism, authoritarianism and utilitarism replacing it,
both imply the recognition of own-ness next to "my" own, as well as the
incapacity of egoism to finds its way out of this deadlock, eventuating natural and
54. Is this not the tragedy of humanity ? The crucial initiators of all
possible ethics, intent & free will, are owned by an ego prone to revert to
the way of the Beast at any moment ...
55. Passionate lust feeds the amoral Beast. Cognition is unable to make the
majority of ego's
capitulate, accept & acknowledge the other human being in his or her own right. The
constant clash of concept and desire disables either approaches.
55.1 Consequential ethics are confounded about which goals and values to share and
how to prioritize them.
55.2 Inventing perpetual growth to satisfy narcistic
expansion, ego eventually destroys the very ground of its own existence.
55.3 Because of its limitations, ego battles other humans and abuses the
mineral, vegetal & animal kingdoms of nature. This all ends in total futility.
55.4 The police and the military represent the ego-based and/or
duty-based responses of the ruling social formations to the wilderness of
The alter-ego and Operation Duty.
56. The patterns of communication at work in early family-life and at
school, educate the ego to open up for the experience of the other. They transpose
primate reciprocity to the level of the ante-rational conceptualization and rational understanding of
the mutual acknowledgment of the asymmetry between the "I" and the "other". Where
egoism cherishes this, altruism aims to harmonize
56.1 Egoists reveal an disinterest in others. They may listen, but
continue to express own-ness. Their core privation is empathy.
56.2 Harmonization is not the same as the undoing of a difference, but
more like the tuning and retuning (after play) of a string over two extremes.
56.2.1 Communication implies difference.
56.2.2 Increased difference is increased energy or the actuality of both
architecture (material particles) and movement (forces).
56.3 Altruism is able to bridge the divide between people without
eliminating the irreducible differences. Multiple transferences between cultures
enable each culture to redefine its own, keeping it alive. More communication
leads to better communication, more efficient cooperation and expanded
57. Acknowledging the frailty of the ego,
being introduced to the other-as-myself, is leaving egoism behind. With this moral birth, "my
name" becomes a name among other names, loses its might as solipsist
singularity, and is thrown into the competition of socialization and collective
57.1 To be named by the other (in his or her own right and not as
owner or owned) is the beginning of the humanization of the other.
57.2 The ego, at the center of the field of consciousness, is not a
substance, but the ever-changing product of the vectors (or aggregates)
sensation, feeling, volition and cognition. It owns fleeting clouds.
58. The free will is a formal, moral will when, due to reason alone, (a)
it is in accord with the moral law and (b) respect for this moral law is its
only determining ground. The moral will does not only act in accord with the moral
law, but for the sake of the moral law.
58.1 Insofar as the will acts in terms of the
formal (universal) correctness of an action and with disregard for its moral contents, the
letter and not the spirit of participationism has been fulfilled.
58.2 Participationism is in line with critical ethics, positing open,
highly interactive, complex and constantly changing systems and subsystems. Each
part having its own architecture and/or movement within the world-system(s).
59. The letter of the moral law is not a hypothetical, but a categorial
imperative : act in such a way that your moral will is a universal lawgiver,
i.e. do to every other as unto yourself.
59.1 The categorial imperative is derived from the
autonomy of the moral law of reason. Autonomy is not arbitrary, but satisfies
the conditions of moral reason reaching towards the unconditional.
59.2 The unconditional completes the edifice of reason and cannot be
60. Righteousness is the spirit of the moral law. Then the other
manifests him or herself to "me" as a totality with an aura, i.e. with the power
of luminous presence. This self-revelation of the other to "me", is like being penetrated
by the poverty of "our" mutual relationship. It triggers "my" need to
communicate with "You" and vice versa. Only then may "we" stop being
strangers to one another.
60.1 The aura of the other is a subtle emanation surrounding the living
body. Unlike the face, which is a pars pro toto, the aura is an integral,
bodily representation of the sentient presence of the other. It refers to his or
her nakedness, and steps beyond own-ness & cultural signs. The aura is not owned
by the ego. It mirrors the energy of the whole, also of what
cannot be repressed, put aside or rejected. It shows the integral human as he or
she is, repressions included.
60.1.1 We all read the aura's of others. They trigger either rejection,
attraction or auspicious neutrality.
60.1.2 The more a human is complete, the more the aura of any other is
perceived as a totality.
60.2 The aura points to the original, unique and specific qualities of
the human. It invites "me" to accept the other as he or she is and not as he or
she fits in "my" perceptions regarding him or her.
60.3 Not to witness the aura is not to accept the human as basically
naked, fragile and without inherent existence. This is the attitude of the
egoist, who wants to exists in the cage of sorrow, negativism & cynicism.
60.4 When witnessing the aura, the other reveals himself or herself to
the ego as a stranger invited by "my" perceptions.
61. In the humanism of the other, the latter evokes responsibility and the
desire to communicate and to sponsor individual becoming in and with a network
of other individuals promoting the ideal of planetary participationism.
61.1 To humanize another human is to step outside the solitary framework
invented by the ego to satisfy its desires and to realize for itself the mind of
isolation & inherent, substantial existence.
61.1.1 To relinquish the egoist, the worst enemy must be forgiven and
integrated. Only by giving attention to the interconnectedness between objects,
events & persons, can the hardened position of the egoist be rooted out.
61.1.2 To step outside solipsism is the first step of compassion.
Cherishing otherness with kindness while assisting reflourishing.
61.1.3 Restoration comes with each return of the mind to its natural,
luminous state. Eventually, each state of mind is integrated with this arché
or base of the mind.
61.2 As every element constituting the world is in constant communication
with every other element, except for the closed & artificial systems
invented by industry, the continuity of interaction guarantees the non-arising
of extremism, fanatism and other one-sided approaches.
61.3 Planetary participationism underlines the interdependence of all
elements of planet Earth. Aware of this interlocking,
responsibility is triggered, for each and every other human is as myself, and
Earth is (for the moment) all we have.
62. The moral imperative is done for the sake and out of respect of the
law. Both cognition and desire participate. Operation Duty is the systematic
humanization of the other. Duty is the application of the free will of the ego
to accommodate, by participation, the becoming of the other, i.e. to
wholeheartedly co-produce the emancipation, socialization and integration of
62.1 After the strong emphasis on the degeneration of reason and the
will-to-power of the Beast, the integration of desire may seem difficult to
maintain. Desire is indeed, more impermanent than other phenomena, but nevertheless
maintains a solid fata morgana of its own projections and mystifications
of reality (in all its modes).
62.1.1 Desire can and must be trained and restricted by reason. Operation
Duty implies discipline, work and a joyful diligence in constant practice. In
some cases, punishment is the tool of education.
62.1.2 At its rare best, Operation Duty is a cage of alienation able to
sublimate frustrations by blinding itself with the excellence of its finite
conditionality, forming a platform upon which the sublime may rest (as on a
truncated pyramid) and correct duty.
62.1.3 Projections and mystifications maintained over time cause
sedimentations like cultural forms, traditions, habits etc. These may represent
excellent answers to past circumstances.
62.1.4 Only flexible architectures withstand their surrounding momenta. All
extremes rapidly fall.
62.2 Operation Duty must be the extreme limitation of private own-ness for
the sake of every possible other human being (in ceteris paribus),
causing its downfall. The logical form of the view it posits is too rigid and
unable to integrate process, flow, change and interrelationality. Without the
inner correction of conscience, duty cannot be maintained.
63. Operation Duty, the acceptance of moral standards,
obligations and the voice of moral reason, is giving up freedom to satisfy the
conditions of the categoral imperative, bridling individual choice for the sake
of and by the institutions of the group.
64. Moral value, according to Operation Duty, merely depends on the moral
law never to regard another as a means, but always as an end. Chosen by the free
will, it does not depend on the pleasurable objects of desire. This law "I"
ought to follow even if "my" own inclinations are thereby thwarted. If an action
does not occur for the sake of the moral law (by itself), but out of the
necessity of duty, it has legality but not morality.
65. Despair is the outcome of the humanism of the ego. Although the
altruist is posturing to move beyond it, the humanism of the other and its universalizing ethics,
encounters the lack of moral sufficiency and is plunged into guilt. A mere
"doctrine of duties", a moral rationality or justice dominating the will, does not suffice.
Ethics needs a "doctrine of virtues" and this reason cannot offer. A
new subjective input is called for : conscience.
66. Because duty is rooted in the rational, formal and empty conception
of the moral law in itself, it represses the will of all impulses to gratify
"my" inclinations and give "me" happiness.
67. The horizon defined by intentions and duty is (inter)subjective and
divergent. Alone with reason and its categorical imperative, the Beast, used to
live irrationally, prevails in numbers. Intent and duty offer disharmony and fragility
between happiness and goodness. Horizontality is tragi-comic and invites mild pessimism.
67.1 Operation Duty has given humanity excellent forms
of sedimented thought. Grand cultural forms and civilizations have persisted and
persist the centuries. Teachings and prayers and sciences are at work, etc.
67.1.1 Although cultural forms assimilate and transform chaos, their
rigidity (at the end of one of their cycles) causes their eventual downfall. One
must mind the gap. Watch and step. Constant adaptation & open communication are essential to
persist over time. Enemies must be embraced. Energy saved even if it is
plentiful. But to learn these simple things still takes a lot of time.
67.2.2 Ecology, poverty, the situation of children, the elderly,
handicapped & excluded are good a posteriori indicators of the correct
application of Operation Duty by the nations. Today, these parameters indicate that Operation Duty
is ready to become a planetary exercise.
67.2 Despite the comical enthusiasm of hoping the best for the human, the
equation does tend downward, although a planetary participationism (or the odd
invention) could reharmonize it for centuries. Qui vivra vera !
67.2.1 Critical ethics embraces pessimism while inviting the
possibility (propensity) of the positive fact.
67.2.2 Critical ethics embraces optimism without rejecting the historical
failures of humanity.
The formation of conscience.
68. Conscience is the objective,
inner organ of ethical evaluation between the affective ethics of intent & the
formal ethics of duty, between the needs of the ego and the responsibility (or
the application of the moral imperative) towards all possible others.
68.1 As duty, conscience is objective, and rooted in a
certain application of reason, shielded from the degenerative flux of desire.
68.2 Conscience is an inner organ sitting at the cross-roads
between fairness and the Beast. It is an integral, functional part of the
ego-system, the organic totality of ego, desire, will, reason,
super-ego, shadow & conscience.
69. The formation of conscience is a cognitive process, in which two
complementary elements play a decisive role : autoregulation and social
69.1 Autoregulation means that the cause of change is not external but
exclusively internal, i.e. rooted in the architecture & the momentum of its
constituent parts. Crisis is the main cause of autoregulation, for in order to
survive a system must reequilibrate after disequilibration.
69.1.2 Classical, linear systems will postpone autoregulation and
reinforce their imperative architectures. Although slowing down degradation,
this does not incorporate the benefits of well-chosen turbulence, nor does it
69.1.3 Intelligent, non-linear systems choose the chaos which
accommodates their most optimal complexification by way of multiple exchanges of
well-formed energy. They survive any change and can withstand space & time much
longer without external controls.
69.2 Social interaction constitutes the reference-groups used by the
moral process, or the interaction between more than two actors, namely their
parents, the school and their peers.
70. The species Homo Sapiens sapiens bonds by producing signs
(signals, icons, symbols). Conscience must be trained to enter the symbolical
moral order in the same way as the mind must be trained to operate a language.
Education teaches actors to understand the moral messages of the other.
interaction allows "me" to understand "myself" through the eyes of the other and
become aware of the higher, intellectual levels of reason and their regulative
70.2 Critical epistemology acknowledges ante-rational, rational and
intuitional strata of thought, i.e. it is multi-dimensional.
71. According to moral science, stages of moral development,
corresponding with cognitive and affective growth, prevail. Together
they form genetic anthropology.
72. The highest stage of moral development optimalizes differentiation (between
goals, values and their priorities) and integration (ability to process a
moral problems and produce complex and coherent behaviour). With this, the
formation of conscience ends.
73. Conscience is part of the intimacy of the ego. Formed in
the course of socialization (so depth-psychology claims), it dominates the ego through the unconscious
ideal-ego. Insofar as its rulings are fixed in values and goals acceptable by
society, it dictates the ego under the guise of a super-ego, reinforcing, through
sublimation, the standards of the introjected world or, if repression is at
hand, feeding the shadow.
74. Conscience postpones the breakdown of ethics by working its
"golden proportion" between egoism and altruism. This brings in the moral
illusions of the super-ego, and transposes the armed truce to encompass "all
75. Just like moral reason, replacing the "war of all against all" with the
"contract of all with all", conscience cannot harmonize happiness with goodness
and complete ethics. Left with intent, duty and conscience, hypocrisy &
unscrupulousness almost seem inevitable, although it is not.
75.1 Ultimately, conscience, as an inner organ and a function of the ego-system,
relies on the intentions of the ego and gravitates around it. Because the role
of conscience is wholly internal, it cannot directly posit anything objective
and so must rely on desire, volition and reason.
75.2 Humanity manifests a strong attachment to desires. In a solitary,
circular psyche they dominate the stream of consciousness and sedate reason.
75.3 History and memory bring into evidence the minority able to
practice calling daily and in doing so balance and refine their elements.
75.4 To pursue fairness, finitude is enough but not satisfying.
75.5 Either hypocrisy creates a social alter-ego to bring out desire, or
reason is consciously perverted.
75.6 With great effort, the closure offered by intent, duty & conscience
can bring about Project Fairness.
76. Like the subjectivists, but for different reasons, critical ethics
affirms the role of feelings in the general inquiry into what is good, making
ethical judgments also a posteriori, i.e. relative, historical, contextual, situational, singular,
76.1 Feelings are meta-actions and thoughts are meta-feelings.
76.2 Conscience is affected by both thought & affect.
77. Despite the given limitations on our capacity to know, reason
transcendental conditions of Selfhood.
77.1 Transcendental inquiries focus on the conditions of knowledge and
make a sharp distinction between immanent (staying within the limitations of
formal thought) and transcendence (moving beyond these borders). Transcendental apperception
discovers a formal Self of all times accompanying each and every cogitation of
the empirical ego.
77.2 The formal Self is the empty apex of the cognitive apparatus, and
guarantees "my" thoughts can be attributed to "me".
Returning the call of vocation.
78. Affects urge for repeated
gratification. In esthetics, sensations are ravished by the excellent sublime.
In epistemology, the unconditional regulates thought seeking truth. In ethics, fair volition
is being called to answer vocation.
78.1 Calling is the intuition of the own-Self, manifesting as the full actualization of individual potential.
78.1.1 The need to acknowledge the own-Self is not spontaneous and must
be triggered by a conscious choice adn dgenerated by creative thougt.
78.1.2 The ego seeks the own-Self because it suffers. Without the direct
experience of the own-Self, the gratification of desire only ends with physical
78.1.3 The realization of an elliptical consciousness does not end
suffering, but is the first step, like leaving the cage of alienation.
78.2 The own-Self, as a deeper mind, is the unique, individual reflection
of nondual awareness (or the natural light of the mind), rooted in the universal
78.2.1 Three levels of consciousness : (1) conceptualizing ego, (2)
own-Self and (3) nondual awareness. The first two levels are relative & dual
(involving ante-rationality, formal, critical & creative cognition), the last is
absolute & nondual (calling for meta-rational, nondual cognition).
78.2.2 Because of its characteristics, each own-Self has an individual
trajectory in space & time.
78.2.3 The own-Self is not a permanent, substantial entity, but a higher
(deeper) stratum of the consciousness-operator of the moral agent, involved in
migrating through time & space a unique spiritual code, consisting of
individualized and meaningful conscious habits, patterns & traces.
78.2.4 In the spiritual systems of both East and West, the own-Self persists through time & space.
In the West, it is conceptualized as an eternal, permanent soul (anima)
in which one of the Divine Sparks of God or Imago resides. In the East
(with the exception of Buddhism), it is called "atman" and deemed identical with
"Brahman", the Creator-God. Ergo, in these substantialist
philosophies, the soul is sempiternal (enduring
78.2.5 Each own-Self has its own particular reflection (refraction) of the spacious
luminosity of nondual awareness, is enduring beyond physical death (for
consciousness-based), but is not absolute, substantial or inherently existing.
78.3 Because calling is highly personal, it is subjective. Because it
does not manifest from within the moral agent, it is outer (objectifying).
78.3.1 Calling actualizes an awakening urging to accomplish the welfare
of the own-Self. This urgency makes calling unavoidable. Vocation is finding this
true, egoless love of own-Self, leading to enlightenment.
78.3.2 Meaningful coincidence (synchronicity) and serendipity
characterize the advent of calling.
79. Vocation is the call of the
own-Self. Ego realizes
this "own-Self" (moves from a
circular to an elliptic consciousness) insofar as it answers the call of
and makes use of its free will to walk its own, unique path of individuation. Ego does so, if it desires
to be happy and good.
80. Like animals, Beasts have no calling. A world of Beasts is a wilderness, not a
civilization. At best, there are islands of fairness, unhappy about the moral
situation of the rest of the world. Fairness has no calling, remains passive
like a remote ideal or consolidates. Calling immediately triggers action. It engages.
81. Calling is the objective, outer manifestation of the quest for
completion, totalization & perfection driving the own-Self. It is the
identity arrived at when all possible conditional series applicable to the ego (and the
super-ego) are negated.
81.1 In Homo Sapiens
sapiens, the own-Self calls each human to fully realize his or her potential
(liberation through realization).
81.1.1 The own-Self is a reflection of a
nondual, luminous, Clear Light awareness united with the light-ground.
81.1.2 More than often, the call of the own-Self is lost in the busy
noise of the ego.
81.1.3 When nondual Clear Light abides, the
light-ground is recognized and the own-Self annihilated.
81.2 In the West, the own-Self is ontologised as an eternal soul with its
"imago Dei" or an eternal spirit, presupposing the existence of a Creator-God.
81.3 In the East, the own-Self is psychologized as a "soul" (âtman)
united with Creator-God (Brahman), or, as in unorthodox systems, as a migrating
spiritual (karmic) code.
82. Calling is expressed in what is done and not done. It brings the
despair of conscience to silence. The latter is no longer furnished by "me" and
"You", neither by our wars and contracts.
82.1 Calling reveals the interconnectedness of all events in the
worldsystem(s). This undermines the fundamental isolation of the ego, aware of
the vast space of possibilities in which it operates.
82.2 Calling intensifies enthusiasm, affecting thought, feeling and
volition. This is an antidote against the neurotic tendencies caused by Project
82.3 Calling brings in the spirit of the universal rule of moral reason,
coupling fairness with rightness, justice with care.
83. The one called is bound to
answer by realizing, annihilating & recollecting the own-Self. Realization decenters
consciousness by introducing the awareness of its creative core :
Be-Who-You-Are. Annihilation comes with nondual
light-awareness. Recollection allows for fusion
with the light-ground of all that exists.
83.1 The conceptual ego veils the own-Self. The own-Self veils
nondual awareness. By individual awareness of Self-identity, the first step is
83.2 Annihilation of the own-Self is abiding in nondual awareness,
discovering its root, the light-ground of the world-system(s). This brings into
focus the universal spirit of compassion for all sentient beings.
83.3 Recollection is wisdom mind, direct, nondual experience, or the
fusion of interconnectedness (space), clarity and energy (movement through
83.3.1 In Western philosophy, wisdom is rationally explained, giving rise
to ontology and onto-theology.
83.3.2 In the East, wisdom is a nondual state beyond lust & unlust,
grasping & aversion, acceptance & rejection, affirmation & denial, action and
inaction, explained in terms of psychology and soteriology. If in denial or in
acceptance, never pursue what is denied or affirmed.
84. When the circularity of egoism is broken,
Self-knowledge is gained through the direct experience of the own-Self. The final
recollection or ultimate return of the call of vocation is -at least- the
experience of nondual awareness merging with its ground.
84.1 The unity between light-ground, nondual light-awareness and light-energy is found
in Ancient Egypt (Nun, Atum-Kheprer & the Ennead), in Dzogchen (Great Perfection) Buddhism (kunzhi,
rigpa & tsal) and in quantum mechanics (zero-point field, photon, particle &
84.2 Calling, once found, has no other merit than to allow the wheel of
goodness to continue to turn and goodness to benefit all sentient beings.
84.3 The notion of the own-Self is implicit in Buddhism, but has not been
put to the fore because of possible recuperations by a substance-ontology
reintroducing an immortal & eternal "âtman".
84.3.1 The no-Self axiom of Buddhism does not deny the possibility of a
migrating deep-mind with its individual specifics, albeit subtle and purified.
It denies a substantial ego and Self.
84.3.2 Because an ontological interpretation of the Self is rejected, the
whole idea has been eclipsed (except by the Pudgalavadins).
84.3.3 The core of no-Self is this : the own-Self is not a permanent,
substantial, inherently existing entity, but a construction able to withstand
physical death and migrate into another physical system until annihilated
by the awakening of the wisdom realizing emptiness.
84.3.4 Without the own-Self, Buddhism cannot consistently explain the long-term effect
of causes, the accumulation of merit, nor reincarnation.
84.3.5 If reincarnation is not, then suffering does not stop with the end
of desire, but with the termination of the physical vehicle.
Goodness & Project Fairness.
Good behaviour or fair and right action is (a) initiated by the free will of the individual ego, (b)
expanded as duty commands,
(c) rooted and adjusted by each individual conscience -seeking the "golden
proportion" between circumstantial desire (utility) and moral reason (duty)- and (d) finalized by
returning the call of vocation.
85.1 At the point of returning to reflection, the horizontal plane is exhausted. Every moral agent must act and the inevitable tensions between
intention and duty will be mirrored in a subjectivity recollecting, pondering
and making sense of it all before acting again.
85.2 Conscience is the arena of fairness, the balance between personal
interests and the good of all other sentient beings.
85.3 Project Fairness represents the first, intermediary closure of the
dynamics triggered by an intent posited in a world. The failure of the "contract
of all with all" leads to a disequilibrium preluding a reequilibration of the
moral subject into maturity.
85.4 Moral maturity is not enough to maintain the first equilibrium (of
intent, duty & conscience).
Conscience reinforces the ego and allows a subreptive re-entry of own-ness
frustrated by duty.
85.4.1 Because of the closure offered by the first three ethical factors,
Project Fairness can -at great costs- trigger an unstable balance.
85.4.2 Without vocation, the first equilibruim is disrupted, causing
fairness to be followed by periods of unrest and turbulence.
86. Moral science and moral reason cannot take away the frustrations of the
ego. Thrusting oneself into a work of desire accommodating goodness is not
of Project Fairness. Although the latter is secular, it does not include the
spirit of humanity.
86.1 Moral science, touching ethics from without, cannot capture the true
sense of right and wrong. Unable to execute moral judgment, any possible
86.2 Moral reason, enforced by duty, leads to an untenable
contractualism, slowing down and limiting the moral impulse to encompass all
86.3 Without the ego finding its own-Self, ethics remains a table with
86.4 The spirit of humanity allows every human being to excell and step
over its own ego. Legalism and bourgeois mentality do not give this and hence
limit the humanisation of the other as a function of its needs and shared
86.5 The religious project is a hypertrophy of bourgeois ethics wherein
God is transformed into a master-bully, cruel & brutal.
87. Without vocation, happiness & goodness are not simultaneous.
Participationism is not the synthesis of a personal ego, but the higher
synthesis coming from being an individual, a someone rather than a
something, and this together, interrelated and interacting with other Selves. No longer a Beast, the "I" of justice and fairness is not yet
wholeheartedly human, for
lacking care, direct empathy & rightness.
88. Theoretical ethics posits a quaternio : intent, duty,
conscience and vocation (calling). Project Fairness is the constant circulation between
the first three factors. Intent is of ego, resulting in
the wilderness of Beasts. Duty is the moral imperative regulating the fair
social contract. Conscience is the burden of proof used by judgment to
pronounce its inner, ever-present verdict.
89. Project Fairness, if successful, is a moral sedative failing to
provide enthusiasm, vehemence, urgency, diligence & devotion for the Magnum Opus each human
being is called to perform. It is necessary but not sufficient.
89.1 Closure implies intent, duty & conscience form a whole and
balance each other. Because of this, Project Fairness is not necessarily doomed
89.2 The difficulty with imperfect closure is the tendency of intent,
duty & conscience to step outside their own limitations and replace their
interdependency with the stability of egoism, i.e. trigger the return to the
amorality of the Beast.
89.3 Project Fairness is necessary because it enables legalism to mature
and be truly responsible (in a conscientious way). It is incomplete because
without vocation, it is unstable.
90. Taken as a trinity of factors working together, intent, duty and conscience are
and represent the "letter of the law" or justice. To have fairness at work, the
application of strong vocation and positive enthusiasm to ongoing just action
-making it right- is not
necessary. But not so to the "spirit of the law", compassion
91. Project Fairness is the set of maxims leading to the threefold
process of ethics in individuals, societies and the world. Intent covers personal maxims,
duty covers social maxims and conscience covers emancipatoric maxims.
91.1 The machinery
of Project Fairness facilitates the emergence of a global community, but not of
91.1.1 The closure offered by the first three factors of the ethical
fourfold lacks, as does intent, the objectivity of subjectivity offered by
vocation (and duty) and is therefore discontinuous and unstable.
91.1.2 Although the excellence of reason builds an international
community, only care & rightness (beyond fairness) sustain and extend such an
effort of excellent rationality as far as the continuity of a profound planetary
peace (transforming the excellence of planetary participationism into its
sublime utopia of the Golden Age).
91.1.3 For it to continuously gain efficient momentum, i.e. constantly
maximalize harmonization, the greatest number of caring intellectuals must
define Project Fairness.
91.2 If, driven by desire alone, egological
conscience turns into unscrupulousness, fairness turns into injustice.
91.2.1 Caring intellectuals accept affects and their analogical
representations hand in hand with the free rule of excellent rationality.
91.2.2 This reign of enlightened reason is not restricted to the formal
mode, but, integrating the latter, it is multi-dimensional in all possible ways,
i.e. also embracing myth, pre-rationality, proto-rationality, critical reason,
creative cognition and the enlightened nondual intellect.
91.3 The downfall of Project Fairness can be postponed as long as the
energy-sources of its economy are varied, sufficient and cheap.
91.4 At their best, emancipatoric maxims cover the preparations and practices preluding
the opening and entry of the own-Self. For its introduction is nothing less than
the implementation of a mental perpetuum mobile, an imaginal everlasting
91.4.1 The ego is a closed circle. The own-Self moves along an ellipse
defined by two conscious foci of which the Self is one. A constant (re)balancing
occurs (between understanding and wisdom, between negation and affirmation,
between relative and absolute, etc.).
91.4.2 The perspective of the dualistic ego is Lunar, gravitating around
the Earth of our physical body and its five senses. As the Sun, the own-Self is
galactic, and in effect spatial & luminous. Working with the ego alone is
observing with the eye of delusion, experiencing only the half of all things.
Realizing the own-Self is the clarity of endless possibilities (cf. the numerous
worlds suggested by the stellar view).
92. Compassion is beyond the exemplaric performance of duty in accord
with intent & conscience, for its activities transcend desire.
Because of the latter, egoism does not find its ultimate end in conscience. Project
Fairness has closure but remains incomplete.
92.1 Discovering its own-Self, ego walks the Middle Path.
Via Regia of the "Golden Middle"
leads to the extinction of clinging & aversion and the experience of
impermanence of all desire. The unwholesome effect of the latter is extinguished
and its contents integrated as part of the spiritual path of light.
93. The ethics of compassion is not legalistic, but "moral" in the
spiritual sense, i.e. as rightness, based on care, trust, empathy, the context of particular
others, sensitivity to each other's emotions & feelings, etc. This is the spirit
of refinement instead of geometry, of interrelatedness instead of isolated,
permanent and failing atomism.
94. The more we seek out and answer the
call of vocation, the sooner planetary awareness will become stable in each member of humanity. Communication
and justice are
just not enough. Participation and compassion form the cap-stone of ethics.
95. Without transpersonal ethics, and the positive empowerment allowing
one to seek out higher satisfactions, an individual cannot integrate happiness,
fairness and care.
96. Convergence alone satisfies desire and pacifies the mind. The first
is knowing and realizing the own-Self as a "higher", panoramic inner
perspective (looking out and down). To know the own-Self is realizing it. To be
introduced to that Self is being it.
97. Transpersonal ethics is not a religion, but the affirmation of
mental and spiritual states of consciousness beyond the nominal and so beyond the conflict between
egoism and altruism.
98. Political leaders lacking Self-realization will not be able to solve
the problems facing humanity on a planetary scale. Very lucky and at their best,
they implement Project Fairness, but fail to satisfy all sentient beings. They
99. Planetary participationism can be defined as a secular pan-humanism.
It promotes planetary democracy, sustains the global rule of law, satisfies all basic human
needs worldwide, maximalizes bio-diversity and implements the new industrial
0-pollution standard. It accommodates both controlled and free markets.
100. Planetary participationism is initiated by a Global Help Project, intended to guarantee a
peaceful transition to this planetary solidarity. In pan-humanism, the global
social contact, as well as a Pareto-optimum in the caretakership of nature,
ought to be moral facts. Both are based on the idea of the overall
interconnectedness between all things as suggested by solid state physics.
Ethics and metaphysics.
101. Insofar as theoretical ethics posits the transcendental conditions
(free will and coordinated movement) and so moves beyond the relative precepts of
moral science, it cannot do so without metaphysics, i.e. arguable but untestable
statements about the universe (metaphysical cosmology), life (metaphysical
biology) and humanity (metaphysical anthropology).
101.1 To define the experimental setup or to describe the speech-acts &
language-games played, implicit metaphysical background information is always
101.1.1 To lay bare implicit concepts adds to their heuristic value.
10.1.1.2 Metaphysical notions kept implicit continue to be effective in
one's stream of thought.
101.2 The first limit-concepts try to work out the fundamental,
all-comprehensive state, ground or origin (if beginning be). These metaphysical
notions regulate the activities of cosmologists. The second deals with the
root-state of life, the third of the human being.
102. Critical ethics works with an immanent metaphysical background.
Transpersonal ethics integrating transcendent metaphysics, is a religious
102.1 Immanent metaphysics develops its concepts within the limitations
of the world-system(s). Ultimately, this leads to all-encompassing
limit-concepts, a definite asymptotic behavior near the point at infinity. As a heuristic tool, it
never trespasses finitude.
102.2 Ethics rooted outside the world-system(s), must depreciate man
and/or mystify the world as a universal illusion ("mâyâ") or a mere fata morgana.
102.2.1 Ontologically, the argument of illusion implies that everything
which is not the world is more important (purest, truest, etc.). Hence, movement is
rest, process is inert, and an ongoing development is an unmoved idea. This
Platonism is superseded.
102.2.2 Psychologically, in this view, man is created by the static, i.e. by
the projected "eidos" of man, product of ever-changing conceptualizations.
103. Metaphysical concepts do not constitute moral philosophy, but
inspire the elaboration of the transcendental pair. Intent, duty and conscience
are also objects of moral science, elaborated against a metaphysical background.
104. By objectifying the unconditional, calling offers a final and
stabilizing regulation, or "turn of the wheel".
It represents the threshold between individual isolation and the dawn of the
awareness of the interconnectedness of everything and everyone, resulting from
the decentration of the ego, the direct experience of the own-Self, its
annihilation and recollection.
105. At the outer edge of immanence, rational cognition, backed by the
concept of a formal, transcendental unity of apperception, is transcended at the
point (at infinity) where the higher Self is realized.
105.1 Creative reason offers vistas of new creative awareness. Creative
thought circumambulates the higher, own-Self and the ego.
105.2 Critical ethics points to the necessity of vocation, but is not
equipped to posit empirico-formal propositions about the own-Self.
105.3 The study of the own-Self is itself part of metaphysical
Ethics and the Divine.
106. Due to calling, the higher
modes of cognition (the creative and the
intuitive) are unveiled as intellect to reason and directly experienced as part
of a pure potential or "own-Self" (amongst and infinite number of other
106.1 Annihilated, the own-Self no longer
limits consciousness by its own-ness and so the luminous root of consciousness is
The root of consciousness is the root of matter and the root of information.
From beginningless times the natural state of consciousness is a clear presence
united with everything else.
107. In most mystical traditions, the Divine exceeds and does not exceed the world-system(s).
In the West, Divine essence, core or
substance is transcendent, and exceeds every thing. Its expression, energy or accident is immanent. Every actualization of the
Divine is of the same one essence.
107.1 Critical ethics posits the difference between immanence and
transcendence and does not overstep its own limitations.
107.1.1 In epistemology, the crucial distinction is between science
(argued & tested empirico-formal propositions of fact) and metaphysics
(arguable, totalizing statements about being, life and the human condition).
107.1.2 In ethics, the crucial distinction separates (and unites) Project
Fairness (the optimum given by an unstable momentum between intent, duty &
conscience) and rightness, care and compassion (resulting from integrating
107.1.3 Goodness is the unison of happiness, justice & rightness.
107.2 The formal Self is the best critical rationality can do, but the
best formal reason can do is not enough to objectify conscience.
107.3 Own Self, nondual light-awareness & light-ground are data of direct
spiritual experience, the training of the intellect and the manifestation of
intuition and wisdom. The more these maxims of emancipation invoke practice, the
better they are.
107.4 The immanence of the Divine is arguable
the Divine exist ?, 2005).
108. Religious ethics is based on revealed dogma. The call of vocation is
solidified into a monolith, for ever and ever.
108.1 Most, if not all religious ethics
justify & institutionalize (a) the inequality between man and woman, (b) the
conflict of man with nature (both in terms of our physical bodies, as well as regarding
the three kingdoms of nature, the minerals, the plants and the animals) and (c)
the tensions between believers of different religions (due to an
108.2 The criticism of the religions is not the issue here. But
historically, they dominated ethics to the point of being identified with it. As
if without religions Project Fairness would be impossible.
108.2.1 Project Fairness is based on moral science positing various levels
and stages of moral growth, based on biological, anthropological,
psychological, social & economical facts.
108.2.2 The limit of fairness is esteem, which is a sign of
excellence (not sublimity).
108.2.3 To understand sublime moral action of highly charitable &
compassionate individuals, a level beyond fairness is necessary.
Although religious, its minimal logical requirements are non-theist (i.e. devoid of a
Creator-God) but never atheist.
108.3 It is possible to define calling as a Divine Call, but insofar intent,
duty & conscience are then infested by transcendent significators, the
limitations of critical ethics are superseded.
108.3.1 The trinity own-Self, nondual light-awareness and light-ground does not
necessarily imply a Creator or a God. In the West, all transcendence is
ontologically recuperated by monotheist onto-theology. In the East, henotheism
prevails, except in Buddhism.
108.3.2 The luminous ground of human consciousness, matter and
information can be made to blend with the statements of solid state physics and
cosmology, stressing the photonic nature of that part of the observable universe
in which life sprang.
108.3.3 Fundamental onto-theology should be devoid of anthropomorphisms
(giving the essence of the absolute a human face or name), revelations (positing
an infinite distance between man and the absolute) and intermediaries (replacing
the own-Self -my Lord- with brokers -our Lord-).
109. Because of its irrational tenacity and the Bellarmine-effect (or the
unwillingness to discuss the possibility of
contradicting facts), religious fundamentalism is an erratic ingredient in any moral
109.1 In essence, Project Fairness is secular and
laic. To control the world-system(s), it has no factor "X" transcending it.
Insofar as vocation is thwarted, this project constantly verges to fall in its negation, the rule of
109.2 The rules of
the game of democracy do not exclude religious ethics to become law.
110. The absolute (transcendence) and the relative (immanence) are
two sides of the same, one reality. By positing the difference, we disable
ourselves to open the door and unite with what never changed to be one.
111. Devoid of religious superstructures, the crucial experiences of the inner worlds (like
nondual light-awareness and light-ground), trigger the ethics of
concern & care. Then, happiness & fairness are good, justice & compassion
are balanced, as are fairness & rightness,
charity & righteousness.
Sketches for an
The practice of ethics.
With the practice of ethics, our investigations
receive a new dimension. Instead of focusing on the question
Quid juris ?, and asking for the necessary principles, conditions & norms of
ethics and its judgments, Quid factis ? aims at maxims enabling us to
apply the wheel of ethics (the dynamics of intent, duty, conscience and calling)
particularly to local contexts and circumstances, taking into account the
relative conditions of space, time & person.
Theoretical ethics is rooted in the a priori and represents a system of
statute-law, implementing a series of principles and norms "top-down". In such
an approach (as in deontological ethics), there is no room left for
circumstantial elements. The concrete situation at hand, namely its
psychological, social and economical facets, are not taken into consideration,
but replaced by formality and legality. Even if ethics takes, as does critical
ethics, the consequential (intent) and subjective (conscience/calling) into
consideration, its norms exclude the actual set of elements gathered a
These considerations bring in the distinction between ethics and morality,
between a normative, conceptual understanding of the quaternio of ethical
factors and the actual, practical application of the formal tool in a concrete,
specific and circumscribed field of events, triggering the mother of all ethical
question : What must I do ? Let good actions, deeds & behaviours be the answer.
Clearly memory plays a crucial role in the transition from norms to maxims, from
statute-law to case-law. In a general sense, memory is then history, and the
forms retained by the latter offer nearly endless examples of good & evil
actions, sedimenting in wrong behaviour and bad habits. If nothing is learned
from this past, then morality can never be deep and vast.
Morality is the application of ethical norms. The formation of successful series
of actions as well as good habits, forming living traditions, bring in rules of
stable good behaviour or maxims. The latter are more fluid and less formal than
a set of norms. Insofar morality yields good fruits (i.e. a happy & good life),
it roots, ex hypothesi, in the dynamics of the normative process of
The various maxims may be organized in concentric circles, starting around the
person and expanding to encompass the zenith and the horizon.
The physical body, the first object of any person, is the vehicle, instrument,
sheet, interphase or material actuality through which understanding
(information) and consciousness manifest in the physical, observable world. As
the health of this body is crucial for the possibility of long-term behaviour,
it occupies the first circle around the person.
As the first five years of any Homo Sapiens sapiens play a decisive and
irreversible role in the development of all his or her possible actional,
affectional and conceptual faculties, family life surrounds the baby's healthy
body. Given that families are defined by other families insofar differences
occur, property is the circle shielding any family-life, and providing the
transition from social cell (clan, tribe) to society. Property as a circle is
not limited to the material plane, but (at least) includes actional (style),
cognitive (education) and affective (refinement) parameters of nobility. These
have taken time to slowly sediment, have always been and continue to be
transmitted to one's off-spring, and this through specific educational patterns
& ways of relating to oneself, the others & the world (nurturing a selective &
exclusive set of maxims).
With the emergence of the concept of the secular state (rooted in the historical
examples of the finishing of the Constitution of the United States in 1787 & the
French Revolution of 1789), the notion of ruling families is encircled by a set
of independent nations, constituted by three independent powers and this in a
secular & democratic fashion, operating in accord with the rights of all human
beings, and safeguarding the future.
The need to be protected and safe, triggering a military acting against
enemy-states, although legitimate, leads to a severe moral impasse,
accommodating armed conflicts and war. Indeed, if Earth were as big as Jupiter,
our problems would not yet confront the nations with
planetary turbulence, disaster and impending catastrophe, as they do at the
beginning of the XXIth century. As Earth is finite and our families a "global
village", another circle is called in by the physical limitations of our planet.
Here, a planetary participationism is actively sought by the nations for the
nations, and this to maximalize their happiness and goodness. A minimum ? The
absence of poverty, the absence of human rights violations, new industrial
standards and an increased
bio-diversity on Earth.
As all things rise, exist and fade away, the physical body of each and every
person eventually dies. The way we make death part of our lives, illustrates our
ability to develop a positive, creative & constructive approach of illness, old
age & the process of death in general, and of our own fears of perishing and
transformation in particular. Meanwhile, it brings understanding of all things
that come to an end and allows us to grow into wisdom facing adversity &
If personhood is a hypostasis, then an
underlying reality is presupposed, like a "soul", eternal or not. This final
ground is then the axiom supporting philosophical anthropology. Consistent with
critical epistemology, critical ethics does not embrace a substantialist,
foundationalist approach, acknowledging the impermanence of all things within
the relativity of the world-system(s).
Given this, personhood points to an original compound, complex or system of
material, informational & conscious operators. Although impermanent in absolute
terms, the person is a relative continuity within the limited span of a
lifetime. This normal, "nominal" waking, dreaming & sleeping continuity is
foremost rooted in consciousness, depending on & interphasing with a body loaded
with physical, chemical & biological information ready to be transmitted and a
brain conditioned by numerous cultural forms.
If personhood would start at birth, tabula rasa might be an option. But
as the brain is prewired and goes through crucial experiences while living in
the womb, personhood is more likely the glorious surplus of the fusion of one
seed (out of millions) with one ovum. With personhood starting at conception
(and not a little later), the maximal moral protection of persons is guaranteed.
Personhood and egohood first meet when the name N is attributed to "my"
coordinations of movement, causing a series of identifications between the
physiological impact of the auditive, visual and/or tactile glyph of N and
coordinations of movement not yet attributed to N (not yet identified as "my"
coordinations). Eventually, the mental habit of identifying consciousness with
the first person ("I"), thinking "I am N" ensues. Here, a new field, only present
in potential, is triggered by coordinations of movement aiming at allowing the
movements of the body to be associated with a phonetical and later visual
founding glyph : the first name. However, the semantics of this name "I"
cannot choose. Hence, the infant is a pre-moral person introduced into the moral
sphere by means of an appellation chosen by his or her genitors.
With the family name, the broader context of giving birth is put to the fore.
Not only is the ego named so-and-so outside its own free will, but neither can
it choose its own family, and the behavioral patterns which are theirs.
Propelled by anterior causes outside its actual field, a person's name reflects
nurture and the differences introduced by the family's application of certain
maxims or the absence thereof. Hence, the delicate process of education demands
In approaching children, love and care are essential. Although moral, they lack
maturity and need to be guided properly to acquire a healthy ego and grow into
their own-Self. This crucial period (from conception to adolescence) has to be
protected by maxims which guarantee the adequate development of actional,
affectional and cognitive possibilities and this in terms of goodness, beauty
In adulthood, privacy, intimacy and the possibility to keep secrets are
important. Here, personhood develops in terms of a reality-for-me, the direct
circle of interaction and communication. Privacy implies sacred time & space. It
must be possible to withdraw from others (seclusion) and to be alone for
prolonged periods of time undisturbed. Education must also offer this, for the
social ego is only the outer persona or mask of the ego. If too much emphasis is
placed on it, and freedom of attention of others is absent, interior life pales
and inner depth will be lacking. To be able to retreat (and to be taught how to
do so) are crucial for the ego to realize its own motives, drives, desires,
feelings & thoughts. This realization has a direct impact on action and cannot
Intimacy is the privacy of a close relationship, either in friendship or in
partnership (work, love, marriage). Here, detailed knowledge resulting from a
long association is acquired. Familiarity and friendship are very pronounced,
and so glances beyond the persona are possible. The danger of this is clear. If
the so-called "friend" is a crook, as may happen in life, vital information will be thrown
on the street and much suffering may be intentionally caused to persons.
A secret, or a piece of
information not generally known which should not be told to others, belongs
to the privilege of the person and groups of persons. If secrets are impossible,
the weaknesses of personal life are unprotected.
Maxims organizing personhood are meant to protect own-ness and satisfy the
humanization of the ego. To be able to develop a reality-for-me, an exclusive,
original perspective or view is the only way for the ego to discover its
propensities, motivations, drives, desires and dualistic conceptualizations. As
in the course of the process of socialization much of the private own-ness of the ego
is sublimated in abstract terms (cf. supra), this view often represents the
opinions of parents & peers. Because of the power of the desire to
exist, the ego recaptures own-ness and affirms its hold on consciousness (in
volitions, affects & cogitations). Most of adult life is seeking a path to
return to the lost affectivity of early youth. That is why adulthood does not
presuppose maturity, although the opposite is recommended. Fairness is not yet
To be able to mature, the human needs a
long life. If this life is cut short, negative sedimentations
have been allowed to interchange with gross material circumstances, although the
latter can and should be avoided as much as possible.
Health is more than a good and strong physical body. It is a state of mind
allowing one to dramatically decrease the process of aging and prolong one's
To acquire this healthy state of mind, the human needs to discipline his desires
(lust and unlust) & their mental sediments (acceptance and rejection). This work
is emancipatoric and the practice aims at health and longevity.
Undercutting desire will take out the root, liberating the mind from the cage of
fear & hope. This is a long-term project, involving the intuitional layers of
cognition. These work with creativity, i.e. the intelligence "of the heart"
instead of cerebral conceptualizations. These are supported by the direct experience of
Divine union (cf. "unio mystica" or "samadhi"). To be able to create new
mental operators, making it possible to alleviate the effects of identification
(affirmation, acceptance) & denial (negation, rejection, repression, etc.), is
the immediate, short- & intermediate term aim.
Personal hygiene, diet, environments, sexuality and a good private life are
wholesome foundations. To seek the best in each of these areas will protect &
prolong life. If excellence lacks, restoration may not be full, but nevertheless
The maxims covering health also bring out the good of the whole range of frail
and weakened human beings. They aim at a state of wholeness encompassing the
Earth and its kingdoms of life. Clearly humanity is still lacking the power to
implement this perspective worldwide, although a lot of good is done. For
limited materialists, health is the continuity of the ego-system, although far
better is possible. Identifying with a caricature of the own-Self, circular
consciousness is limited by and to the physical body. As a result, because of
the unwholesome attitudes, the body suffers more and the natural span of life
cannot be extended, on the contrary. This hampers maturity.
The health of the other kingdoms of life on this planet is also part of the
responsibility of the human, acting as a care-taker. The purity of the natural
elements, the diversity of plants & animals are a wealth to be cherished and
protected worldwide. Loosing it would trigger the end of civilization as we know
it and plunge humanity into tragedy. Hence, the diet of the human has to be
adapted to the ecological balance of the Earth.
In terms of health-care, medical science should not instrumentalize life and
treat human persons (even unborn ones) as objects to be manipulated. The medical
profession needs philosophy, psychology and sociology to deal with birth,
illness & death, for the root-cause of most afflictions are mental, as is
greater part of healing (cf. placebo). To work with the materialist model at the
exclusion of other approaches, limits the healing-potential of the medical
In principle, abortion and active euthanasia are moral evils. In each case, the
inviolability of life is harmed and the deontological principle is replaced by a
teleological pursuit. Stem cell research can never be systematic, as its object
should never be acquired in such a way.
Family is the extension of private life
and of the self-love of ego's. Insofar a person has family, much of what
characterizes this close communal life of the clan is unwilled by the ego,
although eventually it may contribute and make changes. Orphans may be adopted
or, in adolescence, choose a surrogate family.
It happens, as a reaction against past regulations imposed by some kind of
families, that during adolescence, a "soul" family is identified. This seems to
offer a break from the "usual" and this may well be so. But often, when
adulthood arrives and the irreversible "return to childhood" happens, these
"soul" families are uncovered as fantasies, and there is that what remains.
What happens during early family-life defines the ego-complex. This conditioning
cannot be taken out or reversed. Whatever it is, early life has to be accepted
as it was. Mother & father, as depth-psychology evidenced, and later school &
peers, constitute the reference-groups from birth to early adulthood. Adulthood
is precisely this remembrance of the best of childhood. The own-ness of ego must
be experienced before it can be relinquished. The sooner this happens, the
faster happiness is actual.
Of all human institutions working within Project Fairness, balancing intent and
duty in conscience, family-life is the most excellent. Their core value being
unconditional love, families offer a secure and potent way to sediment goodness
and transmit its benefits. Although biologically defined, human families may
supersede the natural law (of male, female & child), but only insofar happiness,
fairness and rightness are not thereby endangered.
Property, or the right to use, change
and sell goods & services, defines the social status of any family. Differences
between families has determined the stratification of social formations since
the beginning of the Neolithic (ca. 10.000 BCE) and sedentariness, when the
piling of material goods became possible.
Language, goods and services were the tools fashioning societies, small
kingdoms, kingdoms and empires. In this process, families have been the nucleus
of all economies. For to transfer property, trust and secrecy are necessary. The
larger the fortune, the bigger the mystery, as international corporate business
amply proves. Given most humans have families, property is intrinsically linked
with this selfish expression of ego's own-ness and humanization.
There are two problems with property. The first occurs when there is poverty
anywhere on Earth. The second is the outcome of a careless and unenlightened
(ignorant) abuse of natural resources and bio-diversities. Both lead to more
poverty for everybody.
People need to differentiate from other people. Property is the tool. That all
humans, animals & plants are well-off, while some humans are rich and/or
extremely rich, is acceptable.
Discovering the lunacy of its own-ness, the ego may mature by stepping outside
the circularity of its excellent but sordid ways and so invite another, more
sublime perspective, namely that of the own-Self, the unique, individual
imprint, form or idea (cf. "eidos") within consciousness of its own luminous
root, nondual light-awareness. The "eidetic" reduction needed is to
directly discover this
bright remainder within consciousness. The ego-system must be disequilibrated by moving beyond the lusts & unlusts of affects, feelings, etc.,
beyond the affirmations & denials of discursive thought, conceptualizations,
rational mind, etc., and beyond the action & inaction of volition.
Discovering the own-Self is connecting to the interconnected network of human
aspirations, hopes and heavens. Care for all sentient beings is the sign of
calling. At this point, material wealth is coupled with generosity and the
active assistance of good work.
20. On the secular state.
Thanks to the secular state, property is
no longer the sole asset of families, companies and religious institutions. The
state is a crucial instrument to redistribute wealth. Indeed, huge differences
in income and accumulated wealth increase poverty. To make peace, the nations
must work as a global network of care-takers.
It is vain to underestimate the power of the Beast and its fantasies. Human
nature being what it is (if not bestial, then guilt-striken or amoral), the
state (even the democratic one) and the academia may be transformed into market
instruments and the Plutocracy which eventually destroys itself. The fragility
of our situation has not yet dawned, and geo-sentimentality blocks global
awareness and this to our great peril.
To curtail traditions makes them stronger. Churches are rebuilt. But slowly can
change the mentalities of their peoples. At times U-turns are necessary,
although even titans are unable to uproot
deep entrenched beliefs. These forces try to dismantle the state. Only a strong
state will be able to uphold the Plutocratic principles of the human animal.
Brutal communism and wild capitalism are examples of the extremes. In democracies,
despite the free market of chosen goods & services, there are things which are
not for sale and principles which cannot be changed by way of vote (like the
integrity & sanctity of vegetal, animal and human life).
21. On death.
All things come to an end.
A phrase adults often repeat ...
Instead of hiding and condemning death, we might accept and study the
phenomenon. Some say
we experience death only once. Other claim we forgot how many times we
already did. Who remembers his own birth ? While sleeping we come near to oblivion for
many hours. Even awake, attention slips away and these tiny moments of confusion
& blur seem so many lost spots in the stream of consciousness.
On the one hand, for the conceptual materialist, death is the end of the
physical support of consciousness, blackening out and disintegrating with it.
Nothing is left and nothing is known, as in the so-called "darkness" of deep
sleep. As if we died every night.
On the other hand, if, ex hypothesi, consciousness operates independently
from matter and information, then the deep-mind of the own-Self, with its own,
characteristic subtle luminosity & refraction, supported by its own, inner
light-root, is not affected by this disintegration of a gross, temporary
physical vehicle (allowing for a partial rebirth, namely of this own-Self).
Consciousness aware of the own-Self is then beyond the tragedy of material
separation. If this is so, consciousness may prepare for death and consider the
merit it needs to guarantee the further clarification (annihilation,
recollection) of its own-Self to the point of the light-awareness of
enlightenment (during this life or just after physical death).
May all sentient beings achieve this liberation and the final enlightenement to
which it leads.
Aristoteles : Ethica Nicomachea,
De Nederlandsche Boekhandel - Antwerpen, 1954.
Aristotle : Oeconomica, Loeb -
Aristotle : Magna Moralia, Loeb -
Aristotle : Oeconomica, Loeb -
Aristotle : Magna Moralia, Loeb -
Aristotle : Ethics, Penguin - New
Aristote : De l'Âme, Les Belles
Lettres - Paris, 1995.
Ayer, A.J. : Language, Truth and Logic, Gollancz - London, 1936.
Bakunin, M. : Marxism, Freedom & the
State, Freedom Press - London, 1990.
Bataille, G. :
L'Expérience Intérieure, Gallimard - Paris, 1973.
Baudrillard, J. : L'échange
symbolique et la mort, Gallimard - Paris, 1976.
Bentham, J. : Introduction to the Theory of Morals and Legislation,
Athlone Press - London, 1970.
Bergson, H. : Les deux
sources de la morale et de la religion, PUF - Paris, 1932.
Bertalanfy, von, L. : General Systems
Theory, Braziller - New York, 1968.
Blondel, M. : L'Action, Félix
Alcan - Paris, 1936, 3 tomes.
Buber, M. : Ik en Gij, Bijleveld - Utrecht, 1959.
Buber, M. : Pointing the Way, Harper & Row - New York, 1963.
Buber, M. : Between Man and Man, Macmillan - New York, 1967.
Chardin, de T. : Het
verschijnsel mens, Aula - Utrecht, 1958.
Darwin, Ch. : The Descent of Man,
Murray - London, 1875.
Dawkins, R. : The Selfish Gene, Oxford University Press - Oxford,
Deleuze, G. :
Coldness and Cruelty, Zone Books - New York, 1989.
Deleuze, G. :
Difference and Repetition, Columbia University Press - New York,
Derrida, J. :
Writing and Difference, University of Chicago Press - Chicago,
De Waal, F. : Chimpanzee Politics, Cape - London, 1982.
De Waal, F. : Peacemaking among Primates, Harvard University
Press - Cambridge, 1989.
Dilthey, W. : Descriptive Psychology
and Historical Understanding, Martinus Nijhoff - The Hague, 1977.
Durkheim, E. : Over
Moraliteit, Boom Meppel - Amsterdam, 1977.
Eccles, J.C. : The Neurophysiological Basis
of Mind, Oxford University Press - Oxford, 1953.
Eccles, J.C. : The
Wonder of Being Human, Free Press - New York, 1984.
Eliade, M. : Birth
and Rebirth, Harper and Brothers - New York, 1958.
Eliade, M. : The
Sacred and the Profane, Harcourt, Brace & C° - New York, 1959.
Eliade, M. :
Shamanism : Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, Bollingen
series/Princeton University Press - Princeton, New Jersey, 1964.
Eliade, M. : The
Myth of the Eternal Return, Bollingen series/Princeton University
Press - Princeton, 1965.
Elias, N. : Het civilisatieproces,
Aula - Antwerpen, 1982, 2 volumes.
Epictetus : The Discourses, Harvard University Press - Harvard,
Elster, J. : The Multiple Self, Cambridge University Press -
Erikson, E.H. : Identity : Youth and Crisis, Norton - New York,
Foucault, M. : Geschiedenis van de
waanzin, Boom - Meppel, 1975.
Godwin, W : An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, Penguin -
New York, 1976.
Freud, S. : The
Interpretation of Dreams, Knopf - New York, 1994.
Fried, Ch. : Right and Wrong, Harvard University Press -
Fromm, E. : The Anatomy of Human
Destructiveness, Penguin - New York, 1973.
Fuller, R.B. : Ruimteschip Aarde,
Bakker - Den Haag, 1975.
Gauthier, D. : Morals by Agreement, Oxford University Press -
Gorgias : Het woord is een machtig
heerser, Historische Uitgeverij - Groningen, 1996.
Habermas, J. : Zur Logik der
Sozialwissenschaften, Suhrkamp -Frankfurt, 1970.
Habermas, J. & Luhnman, N. :
Theorie der Gesellschaft oder Sozialtechnologie Was leistet die
Systemforschung ?, Suhrkamp - Frankfurt, 1971.
Habermas, J. : Erkenntnis und
Interesse, Suhrkamp - Frankfurt, 1973.
Habermas, J. : Technik und
Wissenschaft aus 'Ideologie', Surhkamp - Frankfurt, 1968, p.161.
Hare, R.M. : The Language of Morals, Oxford University Press -
Hare, R.M. : Moral Thinking : Its Levels, Methods and Point,
Oxford University Press - Oxford, 1981.
Hegel, G.W.F. : The Philosophy of Right,
Clarendon - Oxford, 1952.
Hobbes, Th. : Leviathan,
Dent - London, 1914.
Hume, D. : An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals,
Open Court - La Salle, 1966.
Hume, D. : A Treatise of Human Nature,
Oxford University Press - Oxford, 1978.
James, W. :
Varieties of Religious Experience, Longmans, Green & C° -
New York, 1902.
James, W. :
Pragmatism, Longmans, Green & C° - New York, 1907.
James, W. : Principles of Psychology,
Dover - New York, 1950, 2 volumes.
Kant, I. : Critique de la raison
pratique, PUF - Paris, 1943.
Kant, I. :
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Macmillan - New York, 1949.
Kant, I. : Grondslagen van de Ethiek,
Boom Meppel - Amsterdam, 1978.
Kant, I. : Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Merrill -
Kohlberg, L. : The
Philosophy of Moral Development, Harper & Row - San Francisco,
Laszlo, E. :
Evolution : The Grand Synthesis, Shambhala - Boston, 1987.
Laszlo, E. : The
Connectivity Hypothesis, SUNY Press - Albany, 2003.
Larrabee, M.J. : An Ethics of Care : Feminist
and Interdisciplinary Perspective, Routledge - London, 1993.
Levinas, E. :
Ethics and Infinity, Duquesne University Press - Pittsburg, 1985.
Lévi-Strauss, Cl. :
The Savage Mind, University of Chicago Press - Chicago, 1997.
Lévi-Strauss, Cl. :
Structural Anthropology, Basic Books - New York, 2000.
Morgenbesser, S. & Walsh, J. : Free
Will, Prentice-Hall - New York, 1962.
Macintyre, A. : After Virtue, Duckworth - Lordon, 1981.
Marcuse, H. : Eros
and Civilization, Beacon - Boston, 1955.
Marcuse, H. : L'homme unidimensionnel,
Minuit - Paris, 1968.
Marcuse, H. : One Dimensional Man, Sphere - London, 1968.
Marx, K. : Het Kapitaal, De Haan -
Merleau-Ponty, M. : Phénoménologie de
la perception, Gallimard - Paris, 1945.
Merleau-Ponty, M. : Sens et non-sense,
Nagel - Paris, 1948.
Merleau-Ponty, M. : Éloge de la
Philosophie, Gallimard - Paris, 1960.
Pascal, B. : Pensées,
Seuil - Paris, 1962.
Midgley, M. : Beast and Man, Harvester Press - Hassocks, 1979.
Mill, J.S. : Utilitarianism, Dent - London, 1972.
Moor, G.E. : Principia Ethica, Cambridge University Press -
Nagel, Th. : The Possibility of Altruism, Oxford University Press
- Oxford, 1970.
Nietzsche, F. : The
Will to Power, Vintage - New York, 1964.
Nietzsche, F. :
Beyond Good and Evil, Vintage - New York, 1966.
Nietzsche, F. :
Ecce Homo, Vintage - New York, 1967.
Parret, H. : Filosofie en
taalwetenschap, Van Gorcum - Assen, 1979.
Perry, R.B. : General Theory of Value, Harvard University Press -
Nozick, R. : Anarchy, State and
Utopia, Basic - New York, 1974.
Piaget, J. : The Moral Judgment of the Child, University of
Chicago Press - Chicago, 1949.
Piaget, J. : Le
Structuralisme, Presses Universitaires de France - Paris, 1970.
Piaget, J. : Genetische
Epistemologie, Boom Meppel - Amsterdamn, 1976.
Piaget, J. : Genetische epistemologie, Boom Meppel - Boom,
Piaget, J. : The
development of thought. Equilibration of cognitive structures,
Oxford University Press - Oxford, 1978.
Plato : The Republic, Oxford University Press - Oxford, 1993.
Rawls, J. : A Theory of Justice,
Oxford University Press - Oxford, 1983.
Ross, W.D. : The Right and the Good, Oxford University Press -
Rouseau, J-J. : Du Contrat Social,
Flammarion - Paris, 1966.
Rousseau, J-J. :
The Social Contact, Prometheus Books - Amherst, 1992.
Rousseau, J-J. : A Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, Oxford
University Press - Oxford, 1994.
Rousseau, J-J. :
The Confessions, Oxford University Press - Oxford, 2000.
Rousseau, J-J. :
Emile : Or Treatise on Education, Prometheus Books - Amherst, New
Russell, B. : Individu en Autoriteit,
Servire - Katwijk, 1974.
Sartre, J-P. : L'Existentialisme est
un humanisme, Nagel - Paris, 1954.
Sartre, J-P. : Being and Nothingness,
Washington Square Press - New York, 1966.
Scheffler, S. : Consequentialism and its Critics, Oxford
University Press - Oxford, 1988.
Sidgwick, H. : The Methods of Ethics, Macmillan - London, 1907.
Singer, P. : Applied Ethics, Oxford University Press - Oxford,
Singer, P. : Ethics, Oxford University Press - Oxford, 1994.
Spinoza, B. : Ethica,
Wereldbibliotheek - Amsterdam, 1979.
Spinoza, B. : The
Ethics and Selected Letters, Hackett - Indianapolis, 1982.
Roosens, E. : Sociale en Kulturele
Antropologie, Acco - Leuven, 1984.
Rorty, A.O. :
Philosophies of Education, Routledge - New York, 1998.
Stirner, M. : The Ego and Its Own,
Rebel Press - London, 1993.
Tart, Ch. :
Altered States of Consciousness, Dutton - New York, 1975.
Tart, Ch. : Transpersonale
Psychologie, Schibli - Doppler - Schweiz, 1978.
Tart, Ch. : Waking
Up, New Science Library - Boston, Massachusetts, 1986.
Tillich, P. : The Courage to Be, Yale University Press - New Haven,
Toulmin, S. : Kosmopolis, Kok -
Vloemans, A. : Politeia, Kruseman -
Den Haag, 1980.
Vroon, P. : Bewustzijn, Hersenen
en Gedrag, Ambo - Baarn, 1976.
Vroon, P. : Tranen van de Krokodil,
Ambo - Baarn, 1989.
Vroon, P. : Wolfsklem, Ambo -
Wertheim, W.F. :
De Lange Mars der Emancipatie, Van Gennep - Amsterdam, 1977.
Wilber, K. : A
Sociable God, Boulder - London, 1984.
Wilson, E.O. : Sociobiology : The New Synthesis, Harvard
University Press - Cambridge, 1975.
Yates, E. : Self-Organizing Systems :
the Emergence of Order, Plenum - New York, 1987.
Zeleny, M. Autopoiesis : A Theory of
Living Organization, North Holland - New York, 1981.